Tuesday, December 24, 2019

Essay about Analysis of Invisible Man - 683 Words

Ralph Ellison wrote the book Invisible Man in the summer of 1945, while on sick leave from the Merchant Marines. Invisible Man is narrated in the first person by an unnamed African American who sees himself as invisible to society. This character is perceived and may be inspired by Ellison himself. Ellison manages to develop a strong philosophy through this character and portrays his struggle to search for his identity. He uses metaphors throughout the book of his invisibility and the blindness of others in which is a part of the examination of the effects of racism. The development of this unnamed â€Å"Afro-American† character helps set the foundation on the philosophy of understanding who he is. The narrator undergoes experiences such as the†¦show more content†¦He conceals himself in this room and considers himself an Invisible Man because of the unwillingness of people noticing him. â€Å"I am invisible; understand, simply because people refuse to see me† (Ellison, Pg 3, Par 1). He relates his invisibility to that of a dream, as if sleepwalkers just bump him without even seeing him. He claims that he is not complaining nor protesting it, though it can be to his advantage. â€Å"You ache with the need to convince yourself that you do exist in the real world, that you’re a part of all the sound and anguish, and you strike out with your fists, you curse and you swear to make them recognize you† (Ellison, Pg 3-4, Par 2). The narrator’s main struggle through this book is continuously about how he perceives himself and how others perceive him. The incident with the blond man on the street, where the man directed a derogatory insult towards our narrator, attacks him and nearly kills him, is later laughing at the irony of the conflict. He then sees the article in the newspaper, which they call it a mugging. He continues to perceive himself as invisible which can be a metaphor for racism. Ellison uses his Jazz background as a complement to the â€Å"Invisible Man† as the narrator is in pursuit of finding himself. He specifically recalls Louis Armstrong as he listens to his records at the top volume of the phonograph. He explains that he likes Louis ArmstrongShow MoreRelatedLiterary Analysis Of Invisible Man 1570 Words   |  7 PagesAddell November 16, 2015 Literary Analysis of Invisible Man The idea of double consciousness, termed by W.E.B. Du Bois, for African Americans deals with the notion that one’s self has duality in being black and American. It is the attempt to reconcile two cultures that make up the identity of black men and women. One can only see through the eyes of another. A veil exists in this idea, where one has limits in how he or she can see or be seen. This individual is invisible to the onlookers of the veilRead MoreInvisible Man Character Analysis1760 Words   |  8 Pagesmoment in the text, if they ever physically make an appearance at all. It is the comical distortion of their nonexistent or brief physical occurrence in the text that demands a closer examination and analysis of the character to the text as a whole. Ralph Ellison fabricated such a character in Invisible Man, famously known by all of Harlem as Rinehart. Rinehart never physically appears in the novel, and is only known to both the reader and the narrator for his various repu tations. While the narratorRead MoreInvisible Man Character Analysis1533 Words   |  7 PagesIf you skipped from the end of the prologue of Invisible Man, by Ralph Ellison, all the way until the protagonist’s eviction speech, you would probably pick up the plot and character developments without a problem. The first few ordeals described in the novel can be infuriating because of the narrator’s naà ¯ve outlook and his persistence in trying to follow a ‘respectable’ path upwards in life. All of the psychological shifts that lead up to the captivating scenario from the first few pages happenRead MoreAnalysis Of The Book Invisible Man 1671 Words   |  7 PagesAP Quote of the Book Project Invisible Man â€Å"I was naà ¯ve...I was looking for myself and asking everyone except myself questions which only I could answer.† (prologue)- The invisible man is referring to his self-discovery in this quote. He was â€Å"looking for† himself and was adopting all the white culture traits and ignoring his own, leaving behind someone that was not himself. He discovers that he is the only one who could determine who he is and what defines him. â€Å"I was pulled this way and thatRead MoreCharacter Analysis Of Invisible Man711 Words   |  3 PagesThe narrator not only tells the story of Invisible Man, he is also its principal character. Because Invisible Man is a bildungsroman (a type of novel that chronicles a character’s moral and psychological growth), the narrative and thematic concerns of the story revolve around the development of the narrator as an individual. Additionally, because the narrator relates the story in the first person, the text doesn’t truly probe the consciousness of any other figure in the story. Ironically, thoughRead MoreInvisible Man-Character Analysis1691 Words   |  7 Pagesthroughout the South through cooperating with the white people 6. died in 1915 To those of my race who depend on bettering their condition in a foreign land or who underestimate the importance of cultivating friendly relations with the Southern white man, who is their next-door neighbour, I would say: â€Å"Cast down your bucket where you are†Ã¢â‚¬â€cast it down in making friends in every manly way of the people of all races by whom we are surrounded.   Cast it down in agriculture, mechanics, in commerce, in domesticRead MoreThe Invisible Man Character Analysis1150 Words   |  5 Pagesand Joyce Carol Oates utilize negative emotions of their characters in order to showcase the complexities of their motives. Griffin, the protagonist of the book The Invisible Man, is egotistical and selfish, but this is just his outer emotions. Throughout the story there are hints at a complex background behind the famed invisible man that contribute to the reason for his erratic behavior. This is the same with the Arnold Friend, the main antagonist for Wells short sto ry Where Are You Going, WhereRead MoreAnalysis Of The Invisible Man By Irving Howe1584 Words   |  7 Pagesolor Symbolism In The Invisible Man Lucinda Gainor As described by Irving Howe in his 1952 review of Ralph Ellison’s Invisible Man â€Å"This novel is a soaring and exalted record of a Negro s journey through contemporary America in search of success, companionship, and, finally, himself;†. Invisible Man paints a portrait of self-discovery through a narrator who journeys through the dialects and microaggressions of American Multiculturalism. Displaying an Alternate Universe where obvious symbolismRead MoreAnalysis Of The Book The Invisible Man 2020 Words   |  9 PagesMarthaline Cooper Dr. Adams English 312 25 November 2014 The lack of Blackness in White America Ellison’s novel The Invisible Man, published in the early 1950’s addresses the issue of a black man in white America. The narrator starts off by explaining his invisibility and the benefits of being invisible. He talks about how he himself is not invisible because of some biological screw up within his own DNA, but because he is surrounded by people who walk around blinded by his blackness. He growsRead MoreLiterary Analysis Of Invisible Man 1877 Words   |  8 PagesTitle: Invisible Man Genre: Social Commentary Historical context: Year Published: 1952 Literary Period: Modernism Historical or Literary Connections: Invisible Man was written shortly after the Allied victory of World War II. The novel does not focus around the war at all, it focuses on the mass discrimination which took place all over America, especially in the deep south. Protagonist: The Narrator The narrator is a black man living in the 1930s, when racial prejudices are evident throughout America

Monday, December 16, 2019

First Person Ranks First John Mccain a War Point of View Free Essays

Is it more important to focus on the bigger picture in War? Doing so would be to neglect the 58,000 soldiers who gave their lives in the Vietnam War. The Vietnam War is often seen as an unclear part of our history in the United States. This conflict in some Americans minds was a war of ethics, a war of right and wrong. We will write a custom essay sample on First Person Ranks First: John Mccain a War Point of View or any similar topic only for you Order Now The United States entered the war in order to try to prevent the continuous slaughter of Southern Vietnamese people. What we can learn is what lies in the stories of the different people who were involved in the war. The killing of the Southern Vietnamese posed an ethical problem for the United States. The U. S. saw it necessary to become involved. The masses involved male or female were sons, daughters, parents, spouses, and friends to others. What is important in this war is for us is to understand the experiences of the opposing citizens and soldiers involved. We more often than not overlook the personal experiences and aspects of the people involved in the war. In John McCain’s Faith of My Fathers and Nguyen Qui Duc’s La Fin d’un Cauchemar we are able to see the experiences of an American (McCain) and a Vietnamese family. Understanding these people’s points of view can be the most important lesson learned. Ones perception of the Vietnam War is often and easily skewed by outside sources such as media and movies. The personal accounts of the people who were actually involved in the war allow us the right to a better understanding. The two opposing perspectives in these narratives help their readers appreciate the gravity of the circumstances for the people involved. The torture, violence, and separation that these narratives revisit help us better understand the Vietnam War. In the excerpt from Faith of Our Fathers, John McCain retells his account of the Vietnam War while he was a prisoner of war. McCain’s narrative shows its audience a different side of the war. John McCain was a naval aviator in the Vietnam War. He flew in 23 bombing missions over North Vietnam. Preceding his twenty-third mission he was shot down, captured, and was tortured as a prisoner of war for five and a half years. (Kennedy, 2002, p. 249) Throughout the course of these years he was brutalized and beaten physically and mentally. Senator McCain’s experience under the insurgence of his captors cultivated his opinion of the unjust implications of torture. â€Å"Vietnam ignored its obligations to mistreat the Americans they held prisoner, claiming that we were engaged in an unlawful war against them and thus not entitled to the protections of the Geneva Conventions. † (McCain, 1999, p. 376) McCain’s narrative told from his first person point view provides its audience with a soldier’s perspective. In Faith of Our Fathers personalizes the Vietnam War with his experiences as a POW. The soldiers in McCain’s narrative act as a model example of a United States Soldier in Vietnam. â€Å"I will never forget that I am an American, fighting for freedom, responsible for my actions, and dedicated to the principles which made my country free†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (McCain, 1999, p. 376) John McCain exemplified these traits from the United States Code of Conduct for American Prisoners of War. His story stands as a representation of the courage that the soldiers carried during the war. The horrifying description of torture dealt to both McCain and his fellow compatriots’ shows the inhumanity that went on. The account of Lance Sijan, a Captain in the Air Force, is particularly compelling to the audience. He was shot down in Vietnam sustaining several injuries. Shortly after, he was captured by Viet Cong. â€Å"Interrogated several times, he refused to say anything. He was savagely beaten for his silence†¦and struck with a bamboo club. † (McCain, 1999, p. 383) Despite the continued abuse that was placed on Sijan he refused to surrender his loyalty to his country. The way he and many other soldiers conducted themselves in spite of these conditions shows a different side of the war. A side that varies from the common perception of a Vietnam soldier as being abnormal and deranged. These soldiers were dedicated to their purpose and their country. John McCain’s atypical narrative stems a better understanding of the Vietnam War for our generation. Much like and much different than Faith of Our Fathers, La Fin d’un Cauchemar by Nguyen Qui Duc shows a different side of the Vietnam War that generates a different respect and understanding for the war itself. In La Fin d’un Cauchemar tells the story of a Vietnamese family, more importantly, the Vietnamese father and how his imprisonment in North Vietnam has an affect on the family. Duc’s father was imprisoned for over 12 years. During this period of time Nguyen’s family struggled in the communist lead society. La Fin d’un Cauchemar shows the experiences of a Vietnamese family in the light of what was going on around them. The Duc family stands representative of struggling Vietnamese families during the Vietnam War. Nguyen’s family was burdened with oppression, illness, and an imprisoned father. After two years of not knowing the well-being or whereabouts of her father, Nguyen’s mother received a letter with the information that her husband was alive and imprisoned in a North Vietnamese POW camp. Nguyen’s mother â€Å"†¦fought for two months to get a permit to visit [her] father, and then wait just as long to get train tickets on the black market. † (Duc, 1994, p. 419) The communist government of Vietnam dictated her family’s every move. The Vietnamese were severely oppressed. Following Nguyen’s mothers visitation of her father, the family was weighed down by illness and discontent. Nguyen’s mother spent time and money visiting her father and in doing so injured herself. Nguyen’s mothers’ ankle injury became infected and at the same time her sister was dieing of kidney failure. Nguyen’s family was encumbered with problems. Nguyen Qui Duc’s narrative shows us an alternative side to the war. One that didn’t deal with soldiers or battle. Duc’s rarely narrated point of view places the reader in the perspective of the Vietnamese civilian. Our opinions are often distorted by outside sources. Outlets like movies skew our understanding of issues like the Vietnam War. Michael Medved (2005) a nationally syndicated radio talk show host, author of 10 books, and film critic says that â€Å"It is far more common in contemporary war films, regardless of the conflict being depicted, for the three elements of the classic war movie to be turned on their heads. U. S. troops are more likely than not to be portrayed as sick, warped, and demented-in any case, very different from normal Americans. † (Medved, 2005, p. 53) Movies, a major source for our generation’s knowledge and familiarity of the Vietnam War, lack credibility and prove to be inconsistent. Duc’s story is one not even touched upon in movies. Most often movies are filmed through the eyes of the American soldiers. The perspective of the Vietnamese people is never witnessed. Individual first person accounts provide us with a concrete perspective of insiders that movies cannot. These two Vietnam narratives display different perspectives of the Vietnam War. One being the point of view of an American soldier and the other being a Vietnamese family. The personal experiences of these characters help us to understand the war itself. Our generation can learn from these experiences by reading and acknowledging the first hand retellings of Vietnam. These narratives offer a real perspective of the Vietnam War, much different from that of the twisted and glamorized Hollywood angle. First person Vietnam narratives are the most insightful and dignified pieces of historical context we can obtain. While is necessary to recognize the bigger scheme of things it is important to understand the perspectives of the individuals involved on both sides, in order to put the Vietnam War itself in perspective. Reference Kennedy, C (2002). Profiles in Courage for Our Time. New York: Hyperion Books. McCain J. Salter M. 2006) Preface from Faith of My Fathers. In K. Ratcliffe (Ed. ), Critical Literacies (3rd ed. , p 374-387) Boston: Pearson Custom. (Reprinted from Faith of My Fathers, (1999), Random House, Inc. Copyright 1999 by John McCain. ) Medved, M. , (2005). They don’t make war movies like they used to. USA Today, 134, 52-55. Nguyen Qui Du’c. (2006). La Fin d’un Cauchemar. In K. Ratcliffe (Ed. ), Critical Literacies (3rd ed. , p 418-425) Boston: Pearson Custom. (Reprinted from Where the Ashes are: The Odyssey of a Vietnamese Family (1994), by Permission of the Author) How to cite First Person Ranks First: John Mccain a War Point of View, Essays

Sunday, December 8, 2019

Background The Employee Selection Process free essay sample

An analysis of the appropriate measures employers must take in order to minimize the risk of hiring unsuitable employees. This paper analyzes methods employers must take to protect themselves from hiring bad personnel especially these days, when violence, sexual arrestment and corporate fraud are increasing in the workplace. The author suggests several steps human resources personnel should take in order to minimize the risk of hiring unsuitable employees. All work environments, big or small, have potential for trouble. Human relationships are complicated in all situations. Thus when workers spend such a large percentage of their days in the workplace problems are bound to happen. If employers stay aware of developing problems and deal with issues as they occur, the risk in the workplace will be minimal. Background checks and references are crucial for control of the problems arising in the work place. Defamation suits and discrimination can be avoided through carefully drafted written policies. We will write a custom essay sample on Background The Employee Selection Process or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Being wary of providing references is not the solution. The employers must work with the employees to draft policies that will be secure, efficient and control workplace problems. Privacy issues can be avoided if the employees know the underlying reasons. Education is the key and hence, human resource managers must work to provide the necessary security for both the employee and employerthrough background and reference checks.

Sunday, December 1, 2019

The architecture of Brasilia Essay Example For Students

The architecture of Brasilia Essay The capital of Brazil became Brasilia on 21st of April 1960. It was a new city created from scratch. It was the important achievement of the populist president Juscelino Kubitschek de Oliviera, who was in office from 1957 to 1961 (Williams 2009: 95). The city represents many identities such as a frontier city, a development project, an utopian experiment in modern urbanism, a detached center of political power and an Eldorado of opportunity. Migrants come to the city mainly for economic gain. As soon as they come across the desolate plateau, the landscape changes about 40 kilometers from the capital and they are confronted with the separation of modernist Brasilia from familiar Brazil. Brasilia starts as 14-lane speedway roars and catapults the traveler into what is hailed as the New Age of Brazil. Brasilia has become the symbol of this new age. The intention was to create not only a new city, but also a new Brazilian society (Holston 1989: 3). We will write a custom essay on The architecture of Brasilia specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now Although the capital of Brazil was planned well and designed as a first modern city, it did not have the impact on society that was expected. This essay will analyze the architecture of Brasà ­lia, which reflects the divisions in 1960s Brazil between socialist and capitalist roads to development. Since Brazil was mostly rural and was not changed until the mid-1930s, a modernization was needed. At the beginning of the 20th century Brazil had only a few cities and lacked the infrastructure of their equivalents in the northern hemisphere, or, over the border, in Argentina. Political power was widely spread in disconnected fazendas, which were weak and dispersed. Most of the country stayed unexplored and in terms of population distribution and orientation, the Brazil of the 1930s had altered very little from that of the sixteenth-century. The first historian of Brazil, Frei Vicente do Salvador states that it was post-colonial in name only, in fact, remaining a colonial society in function and structure (Williams 2009: 99-100). Moreover, Brazilian cities suffered from problems of transportation, housing, public utilities, and distribution and therefore Brasà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½lia, a new, planned capital seemed to offer hope of relieving the population problems of Brazilian urban life (Epstein 1973: 9). The selection of the site was guided by three basic conditions: a central location in relation to the populated regions of the country, a location permitting easy communication with different regions of the country, and proximity to an interstate border. The most important role was to unify the country (Evenson 1973: 109). The idea and name for Brasilia actually appeared in 1789 but attained its legal form in the first Republican Constitution of 1891. The legislators argued that the move to the interior would enable the government to establish sovereignty over the entire territory of Brazil (Holston 1989: 17). Nevertheless, it took over sixty years to realize this project, intended to modernize Brazil. The entire city, which symbolizes a new future for Brazil, was an experiment built according to a plan. Brasà ­lia was a result of political will and spontaneous enthusiasm. It was not believed that a country with such a poor organization and efficiency, unable to provide adequate urban houses and services would create a new capital in an isolated wilderness (Evenson 1973: 101-102). A radical change came with the new president Juscelino Kubitschek de Oliviera, who had as his slogan: Fifty years of Progress in Five Years (Evenson 1973: 113). In fact, he wanted to turn Brazil into an industrial, first world nation in those five years. He also introduced the automobile industry in Brazil, which became one of the Brazils biggest and most strategically successful, serving not only an export market for Brazilian cars, but also defining the look of new urbanization (Williams 2009: 105-106). Kubitschek organized a national campaign to enlist people for the construction of Brasilia. It sought volunteers for three purposes: to build the capital, to supply the material, and to plan and administer the project. All of these people the so-called pioneers were recruited and lived at the construction site of the future capital. The recruitment campaign focused on popularizing the construction of Brasilia as the means to forge a new national identity. He made appeals through a media, which presented all aspects of the construction and inauguration of Brasilia as a pageant of Brazilian progress (Holston 1989: 206, 208). Furthermore, Brasà ­lia provided the first opportunity for an application of the principles of the Modern Movement, which had been known more for visionary projects than realized urban plans. The designers of Brasà ­lia had a unique possibility to make their urban ideals a reality; in other words Brasilia remains the greatest single opportunity have been given to an architect in our time (Evenson 1973: 118). A design competition was held in September 1956, by which time Kubitschek had already decided that his friend Oscar Niemeyer, Brazils leading modernist, would design the major public buildings. The winner was Là ¯cio Costa, who described his new planned city as the capital of the autostrada and the park, combining the bucolic imagery of the English new towns with that of the automotive industry (Williams 2009: 105). Brasà ­lia was also planned as the focal point of a new system of interior highways, linking the north and south Brazil providing, for the first time, a ground transportation system uniting the country from within (Evenson 1973: 102). Costa and Niemeyer viewed the stateà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½s project to build a new capital as an opportunity to construct a city that would transform or at least strongly push the transformation, of Brazilian society-a project of social transformation without social upheaval (Holston 1989: 78). .ub6a3a286a5c7dce444ac007bca4b7d68 , .ub6a3a286a5c7dce444ac007bca4b7d68 .postImageUrl , .ub6a3a286a5c7dce444ac007bca4b7d68 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ub6a3a286a5c7dce444ac007bca4b7d68 , .ub6a3a286a5c7dce444ac007bca4b7d68:hover , .ub6a3a286a5c7dce444ac007bca4b7d68:visited , .ub6a3a286a5c7dce444ac007bca4b7d68:active { border:0!important; } .ub6a3a286a5c7dce444ac007bca4b7d68 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ub6a3a286a5c7dce444ac007bca4b7d68 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ub6a3a286a5c7dce444ac007bca4b7d68:active , .ub6a3a286a5c7dce444ac007bca4b7d68:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ub6a3a286a5c7dce444ac007bca4b7d68 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ub6a3a286a5c7dce444ac007bca4b7d68 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ub6a3a286a5c7dce444ac007bca4b7d68 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ub6a3a286a5c7dce444ac007bca4b7d68 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ub6a3a286a5c7dce444ac007bca4b7d68:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ub6a3a286a5c7dce444ac007bca4b7d68 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ub6a3a286a5c7dce444ac007bca4b7d68 .ub6a3a286a5c7dce444ac007bca4b7d68-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ub6a3a286a5c7dce444ac007bca4b7d68:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: The Nature, Transmission, Prevention, and Treatmen EssayThe architecture of Braslia has innovative elements representing modernization and mobility. Lucio Costas Pilot Plan for Brasà ­lia is a perfect, genuine model of the modern movement in architecture in which he incorporated historical elements, baroque perspectives, and monumental land levelings that bow to antiquity and pre-Columbian America. It made reference to both the gregariousness of Brazilian colonial times and to international urban ideas-the ceremonial acropolis, the linear city, the garden city and the urbanism of commercial areas ( Kohlsdorf, Kohlsdorf and Holanda: 2009: 47). The central area is called Pilot Plan which looks from the air like a bird, an aeroplane, a tree, or the sign of the cross, depending on whose account is read. It was designed around a motorway, the 14-kilometre Eixo Rodovirio (Highway Axis) bisected by a 5-kilometre Eixo Monumental (Monumental Axis). The Eixo Monumental surrounds the citys main icons: the National Congress, the Ministries, the National Theatre and the cathedral, all designed by Oscar Niemeyer. Progress is represented in these buildings through the modernity of their materials (concrete, glass) and certain formal innovations (such as the inverted columns). Another part of the Pilot Plan is Estao Rodoviria (central bus station), which is sometimes overlooked, literally, because in some sense it is actually subterranean. Lucio Costa did not put the government buildings at the heart of the city, instead he put a transport hub, which was the centre of both the citys public transport network and its highway network. It is a building about movement and speed, connected to the modernized Brazil that the new capital was supposed to represent. The city is conceived as fundamentally mobile; the spaces themselves are undemonstrative, flexible, designed for the rapid movement of people and vehicles. (Williams 2009: 97-99). The city became an image of the car industry, because it replaced the historicist villas of the bourgeoisie with high-rises and freeways and underpasses (Williams 2009: 106). Moreover, Brasilia is the city without street corners and crowds. The absence of the traditional streets themselves is one indication of a distinctive and radical feature of modern urban organization. In place of the street, Brasilia substitutes high-speed avenues and residential cul-de-sacs; in place of pedestrian, the automobile; and in place of the system of public spaces that streets traditionally support, the vision of a modern and messianic urbanism. It forced people to stay in their apartments and replaced the spontaneity of street encounters with the formality of home visits. This interiorization of social life had the effect of restricting and ultimately constricting Brasilias social universe (Holston 1989: 101, 107). Brasilias modernist design achieves a similar kind of defamiliarization of public and private values in both the civic and the residential realms. This means that it restructures the public life of the city by eliminating the street and also it restructures the residential areas by reducing the social spaces of the private apartment in favor of a new type of residential collectivity. This design, harmonized in plan and elevation, created a kind of a new world for the government to populate after the architects unveiled the built city. As one migrant explained about her experiences in this newly inaugurated world: Everything in Brasilia was different. It was a shock, an illusion, because you did not understand where people lived, or shopped, or worked, or socialized (Holston 1989: 187). The absence of an urban crowd has earned the reputation of a city that lacks human warmth (Holston 1989: 105). Although the plan offered a solution to social stratification, many deviations appeared in the settlement and social life from the original plan. Brazilian architects were inspired by Soviet constructivism and post-Stalinist functionalism that provided more than just examples of specific architectural solutions for the Brazilians. They also provided the model of social architecture in the solution of collective problem (Holston1989: 38). The residential sectors are differentiated into four subtypes, each associated with a different form of housing, but all ultimately related in their planning to a concept of zoned, collective dwelling. Sectors of Collective Dwelling are those that consist exclusively of apartment blocks that share residential facilities and are arranged in groups within green area of public land. They are found predominantly in the Pilot Plan, where the apartment blocks are organized into units called superquadras, in which all families have the same life and rights. Costas superquadra derives directly from the Soviet Constructivist prototype for collective residence, the dom-kommuna. The planned residential unit is a self-sufficient community providing a full-range of collective services for its residents (schools, day-care centers, kitchens, clinics, shops) and that of a unit linked with similar units into a larger community (Holston 1989: 163-165). However, after completing the city, many deviations appeared in the urban settlement pattern and social life from the original plan. One of the most important deviations is that the majority of people live in different parts of the city than was originally planned and many places remain empty. There are four major areas of settlement in Brasà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½lia such as the central planned area Pilot Plan, the satellite towns, which are recognized as permanent and legal by the government and construction camps operated by private companies, but are considered temporary. Likewise in other Brazilian cities squatter settlements have been developed in Brasà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½lia, because for some people that was the only possibility. .u3892907261a4886a1f20a282c64927a9 , .u3892907261a4886a1f20a282c64927a9 .postImageUrl , .u3892907261a4886a1f20a282c64927a9 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u3892907261a4886a1f20a282c64927a9 , .u3892907261a4886a1f20a282c64927a9:hover , .u3892907261a4886a1f20a282c64927a9:visited , .u3892907261a4886a1f20a282c64927a9:active { border:0!important; } .u3892907261a4886a1f20a282c64927a9 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u3892907261a4886a1f20a282c64927a9 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u3892907261a4886a1f20a282c64927a9:active , .u3892907261a4886a1f20a282c64927a9:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u3892907261a4886a1f20a282c64927a9 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u3892907261a4886a1f20a282c64927a9 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u3892907261a4886a1f20a282c64927a9 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u3892907261a4886a1f20a282c64927a9 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u3892907261a4886a1f20a282c64927a9:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u3892907261a4886a1f20a282c64927a9 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u3892907261a4886a1f20a282c64927a9 .u3892907261a4886a1f20a282c64927a9-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u3892907261a4886a1f20a282c64927a9:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Group and Organizational Behavior Reaction Paper EssayThe largest squatter settlement is the Social Security Invasion, which was the opposite of the Pilot Plan and had a profound effect on evolution of the city (Epstein1973: 10). The differences can be seen immediately. In the Social Security Invasion there are no paved streets, people live in wooden shacks and have no electricity and no drinking water, whereas Pilot Plan streets are paved in asphalt, houses are made of glass or cement, people have their own cars and can shop in hygienic supermarkets (Epstein1973: 106). This reproduces the distinction between privileged centre and disprivileged periphery that is one of the most basic features of the rest of urban Brazil, of the underdevelopment Brasils planners reject to deny in building their new world. The paradox of Brasilias development is not that its radical premises failed to produce something new, but rather, that what they did produce contradicted what was intended (Holston 1989: 23, 28). The city, which is one of the largest construction projects in human history, caused positive and negative reactions. For some people it symbolizes a break from the agrarian past and the life of the coastal centers into a future of pioneering growth in the interior and in the realm of industrial production, whereas for others it represented only a monumental urbanistic and social disaster, a venture into conspicuous consumption and the source of crippling inflation (Epstein 1973: 26). Besides, the first generation of migrants in postinaugural Brasilia called its impact as a brasilite, meaning Brasil(ia)-it. It is an ambiguous description, because it includes negative and positive responses to the planned city. It refers to peoples feelings about daily life without pleasures and little rituals-of the outdoor public life of other Brazilian cities. On the one hand, Brasilienses appreciated the economic opportunity and higher standard of living. In the 1980 census confirms Braslias preem inent position in Brazil as a place to work. The urban conditions and job opportunities provided in the city itself-called the Plano Piloto are very good so the quality of life in these terms is exceptional. On the other hand, the negative aspects of brasilite are linked to a negation of the familiar urban Brazil in the citys organization and architecture. The mixing of social classes in the same superquadras was seen as explosive, igniting conflicts among neighbors of different life styles and values. The uniform fades were considered monotonous and their standardization produced anonymity, not equality. People also complained about familiar style missing streets and the crowds that they had enjoyed in other cities. They found the street life cold. As a result they tried to familiarize this utopian city by putting their shops back on the street, in contact with curbs and traffic. Many bureaucrats moved out of the center, preferring to build individual houses that show off the residents wealth, status and negate the modernist aesthetic. According to peoples evaluation Braslia is quite seductive and its practical advantages come to outweigh its defamiliarizations, but what resulted was not of course the old Brazil, but neither was it the imagined city (Holston 1989: 24-25). To conclude, Brasilia was conceived as a model city, a constructed image, not of existing Brazilian conditions, but of the future of Brazil. It was also a critical utopia as an image of a future radically different from the present. Brasiliaà ¯s planners called it the capital of the twenty-first century not because they thought its design futuristic in any phantasmagoric sense. It represented for them a set of solutions to immediate development objectives that constituted a blueprint of how to get to a possible future (Holston 1989: 84-85). Brasilia is not exactly a human settlement surrounded by its history; it might indeed actually appear as unimaginative and inhumane aspects of modern civic design. According to the Italian critic Bruno Zevi, It is a city of Kafka. Brasà ¯lia presents the vision of a totally man-made environment. Although it was critized in the past, its physical image with its wide roads, uniformly modern buildings, vast monument axis, and dramatic government co mplex, has become as well-known known a symbol of Brazil as the statue of Christ on Corcovado (Evenson 1973: 103-104). Bibliography: Epstein, David G (1973), Brasà ­lia, Plan and Reality: A Study of Planned and Spontaneous Urban Development (London: University of California Press). Evenson, Norma (1973), Two Brazilian Capitals: Architecture and Urbanism in Rio De Janiero and Brasà ­lia (London: Yale University Press). Holston, James (1989), The Modernist City: An Anthropological Critique of Brasà ­lia (London: The University of Chicago Press). Kohlsdorf, Mara E; Kohlsdorf, Gunter; Holanda, Frederico (2009), Brasà ­lia: Permanence and Transformations in Contemporary Urbanism in Brazil: Beyond Brasilia, ed. Vicente del Rio and William Siembieda (Florida: The University Press) pp. 42-64. Williams, Richard J (2009), Brazil, (London: Reaktion Books).

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

The Italian policies of Frederick Barbarossa Essay Example

The Italian policies of Frederick Barbarossa Essay Example The Italian policies of Frederick Barbarossa Paper The Italian policies of Frederick Barbarossa Paper Essay Topic: History The Italian policies of Frederick Barbarossa, German king and Holy Roman Emperor had a huge impact on medieval Germany during the 12th century. The question of ecclesiastical versus secular power broke out during the emperors reign at a time when Germany was considered to be the strongest monarchy, having authority in Italy and the rest of the Roman Empire. The time was right at Frederick Barbarossas accession in 1152 to restore imperial authority in Italy which had been in demise since the Investiture contest. However this goal threw the Holy Roman emperor into a conflict with the papacy, an obstacle that would prove too hard to overcome in order to achieve all that which the emperor thought was denied to him. However the Papacy also paid a price for holding Frederick in opposition. The Italian policies were far too extent and were finished incomplete. The emperors Italian policies at which he aimed to retrieve from the papacy what he thought he was entitled to, were controversial but innovative. Frederick aimed, with the help of Chancellor Rainald of Dassel to reconstruct the Holy Roman Empire to return it to the glory days of Rome and exercise the authority that the Ottonian emperors had done. 1This battle for land was in essence a way to increase his revenues so he could keep what power he had in Germany over his most influential vassals, something his imperial court pursued vigorously. The authority over the Papal States in such a feudal system meant in theory he was ruler of Rome, but ever since the Commune directed against the papacy had been established in 1143 in Rome the debate had been vociferous and complicated. This would not only create a united and strong empire, it would also question the role of regalia in the papacy. This great design2 was declared openly to the church in 1158 with the Roncaglia decrees. The papacy was angry at this break from the Peace of Constance of 1153, (at which they had been allies) and his determination to exercise authority, especially in central and Northern Italy, proclaimed in the Roncaglia decrees. 3 The Roncaglia decrees proclaimed he would resume all regalia, entire power of Bannus; full exercise of jurisdiction over all matters affecting property, life and liberty. This antagonism, the papacy felt went against the authority of God since the church should have authority over everything, and it resulted in a break of the papal alliance and a schism amongst the church. The papacy highly opposed the independence of many Lombard cities and would not allow any increase in imperial power in Italy. 4 The emperor began his Italian policy swiftly, completing four campaigns into Italy in 1164 and supporting many imperial popes during the 1160s. Even earlier he had established imperial rule in Milan, during the time of Hadrian IV, with little opposition from the papacy5 but Milan found allies in the communes of Brescia and Piacenza. Milan was taken in 1162 and later destroyed which narrowed the anti-imperial coalitions prospect for success, while he forced Alexander III into exile and enthroned Paschal III, a German in St. Peters in 1167. 6 The opposition of the Papacy to the Italian policy began with the succession of Alexander III, the emperors most formidable opponent. The papacy had already found allies in the Lombard city of Milan after the Roncaglia Decrees. Imperial rule over Milan was quickly answered two years after Frederick had taken Milan 8when Manual I, the Byzantine emperor organised an opposition in Venice, the League of Verona with its allies Verona, Padua and Vicenza, including the Norman King. This proved to perhaps achieve the greatest success in opposing the Italian policies of Frederick Barbarossa in Nor thern and Central Italy. The papacy went further in opposition under the politics of Alexander III by excommunicating the emperor after he established Paschal III as pope. The papacy then continued in its opposition in 1167 when the Imperial army was defeated outside Rome, by extending the League of Verona by allying itself into the Lombard League in 1167, while at the same time the pope contributed large sums of money. This proved to wreck many of Fredericks ambitions and gain support for the papacy. Alexander III gained the support of France and the Anglo-Norman Kingdom, while in Denmark and Poland the remaining allies of the imperial pope were exiled. 10 A year later Alexander was able to establish the city of Alessandria with the help of the League. The city of Alessandria was to the emperor a symbol of papal achievement, and although efforts for settlement with the pope continued, the presence of the Lombard League was something the emperor could not allow during peace. The Italian policy again prevaile d with the fifth campaign in 1174 against Alessandria. The emperor again faced defeat and was able to make peace in Montebello with the League, but the Italian policy once again got in the way when Frederick could not accept the inclusion of Alexander III in the peace. Fredericks stubbornness in following his Italian policies (even in opposition to the papacy) however was weakened and a small success was granted to Alexander. The battle of Legnano in 1176 resulted in a near complete destruction of the imperial supremacy in Italy and convinced the emperor to reconcile with the pope. 1 Negotiations at Anagni achieved a far reaching settlement 12 between emperor and pope. The emperor was forced to renounce the Matildine lands and ally with Alexander. He granted some independence to the cities he controlled in Italy and accepted the role of overlord. At this stage the Italian policies of Frederick had failed and the papacy was triumphant. The new relations with the pope had not destroyed the Italian policy, but had instead ended this period of conflict in the Peace of Venice in 1177. Compromise was the aim of both Pope and emperor at the Peace of Venice. Frederick gave up his idea of domination of Italy in return he remained in control of the German church, evidence that the papacy was not as successful in exercising the idea of a papal monarchy and that much strain had been put on its authority over this period. 13 Peace with the Lombard league and Norman King however was not entirely a defeat of the Italian policy, it had taken away much of the authority of Fredericks in Northern Italy but it had left him the authority of the German church, although this was not in Italy it meant the papacy was back where it started. Fredericks policy became focused on the Matildine lands and central Italy. The Peace was broken when Frederick continued his Italian policy in the 1180s; it was the price of silence over many issues (at the treaty of Venice) which were to give rise to the troubles. 14 Frederick revenged the battle of Legnano in 1180 which was later followed by the peace of Constance in 1183. 15 The Peace of Constance meant Frederick was forced to allow the members of the League to have extensive constitutional independence within the city walls and the city territory. But Fredericks rights which could make large financial profits within the city remained. However with the death of Alexander in 1181 there followed a line of passive popes who complied with the emperor during his last Italian campaign (118-6) thus strengthening his influence in Lombardy. By 1189 compromise was again on the table and the papacy was granted a number of places in the Patrimony of St. Peter, reestablishing the area around Rome as a Papal domain. The papacy was left surrounded at the death of Frederick Barbarossa in 1190 when his son Henry VI became engaged to the heiress of the Norman Kingdom of Southern Italy. Frederick still held administrative power in some parts of central Italy but his Italian policy had failed. The Italian policy had failed because it did not answer the question of ecclesiastical versus imperial authority. Frederick Barbarosssas plans of supreme domination over the entire Holy Roman empire were not achieved, but though he yielded much of what he wished to gain it is not to say either that the papacy was entirely successful. ) It had radically altered the place of the papacy in the church16 and left the Holy Roman emperors successors with many claims unanswered. The hard line of Alexander III had not been continued and the emperor was left for sometime unopposed. The Lombard communes can be recognised as the real reason the papacy emerged successful 17 but still the papacy had the future to deal with, a future that found them surrounded by the Holy Roman Emperors authority. Both the emperor and the Papacy paid the price of conflict, but the Papacy was successful enough to immobilise the Italian Policy of Frederick Barbarossa.

Friday, November 22, 2019

Battle of Princeton in the American Revolution

Battle of Princeton in the American Revolution Conflict Date: The Battle of Princeton was fought January 3, 1777, during the American Revolution (1775-1783). Armies Commanders: Americans General George WashingtonBrigadier General Hugh Mercer4,500 men British Major General Lord Charles CornwallisLieutenant Colonel Charles Mawhood1,200 men Background: Following his stunning Christmas 1776 victory over the Hessians at Trenton, General George Washington withdrew back across the Delaware River into Pennsylvania. On December 26, Lieutenant Colonel John Cadwaladers Pennsylvania militia re-crossed the river at Trenton and reported that the enemy was gone. Reinforced, Washington moved back into New Jersey with the bulk of his army and assumed a strong defensive position. Anticipating a swift British reaction to the Hessians defeat, Washington placed his army in a defensive line behind Assunpink Creek to the south of Trenton. Sitting atop a low string of hills, the American left was anchored on the Delaware while the right ran east. To slow any British counterattack, Washington directed Brigadier General Matthias Alexis Roche de Fermoy to take his brigade, which included a large number of riflemen, north to Five Mile Run and block the road to Princeton. At Assunpink Creek, Washington faced a crisis as the enlistments of many of his men were set to expire on December 31. By making a personal appeal and offering a ten dollar bounty, he was able to convince many to extend their service by one month. Assunpink Creek In New York, Washingtons concerns about a strong British reaction proved well-founded. Angered over the defeat at Trenton, General William Howe cancelled Major General Lord Charles Cornwallis leave and directed him to advance against the Americans with around 8,000 men. Moving southwest, Cornwallis left 1,200 men under Lieutenant Colonel Charles Mawhood at Princeton and another 1,200 men under Brigadier General Alexander Leslie at Maidenhead (Lawrenceville), before encountering the American skirmishers at Five Mile Run. As de Fermoy had become drunk and wandered away from his command, leadership of the Americans fell to Colonel Edward Hand. Forced back from Five Mile Run, Hands men made several stands and delayed the British advance through the afternoon of January 2, 1777. After conducting a fighting retreat through the streets of Trenton, they rejoined Washingtons army on the heights behind Assunpink Creek. Surveying Washingtons position, Cornwallis launched three unsuccessful attacks in an attempt to take the bridge over the creek before halting due to growing darkness. Though warned by his staff that Washington may escape in the night, Cornwallis rebuffed their concerns as he believed the Americans had no line of retreat. On the heights, Washington convened a council of war to discuss the situation and asked his officers if they should stay and fight, withdraw across the river, or make a strike against Mawhood at Princeton. Electing for the bold option of attacking Princeton, Washington ordered the armys baggage sent to Burlington and his officers to commence preparation for moving out. Washington Escapes: To pin Cornwallis in place, Washington directed that 400-500 men and two cannon remain on the Assunpink Creek line to tend campfires and make digging sounds. These men were to retire before dawn and rejoin the army. By 2:00 AM the bulk of the army was quietly in motion and moving away from Assunpink Creek. Proceeding east to Sandtown, Washington then turned northwest and advanced on Princeton via the Quaker Bridge Road. As dawn broke, the American troops were crossing Stony Brook approximately two miles from Princeton. Wishing to trap Mawhoods command in the town, Washington detached Brigadier General Hugh Mercers brigade with orders to slip west and then secure and advance up the Post Road. Unknown to Washington, Mawhood was departing Princeton for Trenton with 800 men. The Armies Collide: Marching down the Post Road, Mawhood saw Mercers men emerge from the woods and moved to attack. Mercer quickly formed his men for battle in a nearby orchard to meet the British assault. Charging the tired American troops, Mawhood was able to drive them back. In the process, Mercer became separated from his men and was quickly surrounded by the British who mistook his for Washington. Refusing an order to surrender, Mercer drew his sword and charged. In the resulting melee, he was severely beaten, run through by bayonets, and left for dead. As the battle continued, Cadwaladers men entered the fray and met a fate similar to Mercers brigade. Finally, Washington arrived on the scene, and with the support of Major General John Sullivans division stabilized the American line. Rallying his troops, Washington turned to the offensive and began pressing Mawhoods men. As more American troops arrived on the field, they began to threaten the British flanks. Seeing his position deteriorating, Mawhood ordered a bayonet charge with the goal of breaking through the American lines and allowing his men to escape towards Trenton. Surging forward, they succeeded in penetrating Washingtons position and fled down the Post Road, with American troops in pursuit. In Princeton, the majority of the remaining British troops fled towards New Brunswick, however 194 took refuge in Nassau Hall believing that the buildings thick walls would provide protection. Nearing the structure, Washington assigned Captain Alexander Hamilton to lead the assault. Opening fire with artillery, American troops charged and forced those inside to surrender ending the battle. Aftermath: Flush with victory, Washington wished to continue attacking up the chain of British outposts in New Jersey. After assessing his tired armys condition, and knowing that Cornwallis was in his rear, Washington elected instead to move north and enter winter quarters at Morristown. The victory at Princeton, coupled with the triumph at Trenton, helped bolster American spirits after a disastrous year which saw New York fall to the British. In the fighting, Washington lost 23 killed, including Mercer, and 20 wounded. British casualties were heavier and numbered 28 killed, 58 wounded, and 323 captured. Selected Sources British Battles: Battle of PrincetonBattle of Princeton

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Encounter point Movie Review Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words - 1

Encounter point - Movie Review Example With the help of goal of promotion of peace between Israelis and Palestinians, it became easy for the director to make the movie a complete success. The main purpose of the movie was to make sure that people learn more about the nature of the status of relationship between Israelis and Palestinians (Avni). The cast of the movie includes Ali Abu Awwad, Robi Damelin, Sami Al Jundi, George Saadeh and many others who have done flawless work to make the documentary a hit of the millennium. The movie had managed to deliver its message through the characterization of different events that affected family settings in the society during the violent event between Israelis and Palestinians. The director has clearly projected each and every motive of the issue through different angles. Different people had elaborated their experiences in the documentary that adds up all the patterns of insecure relationship between Palestinians and Israelis. The depictions of family have not been false as the non-profit organization Just Vision had constantly followed these families for about sixteen months in tota (Avni)l. The documentary had been directed with the help of in-depth analysis of the consequences. The director and cast of the documentary had conducted interviews for the purpose of analysis. There were 475 participants who were interviewed during the research for the documentary. For the purpose of effective research of the relationship status between Palestinians and Israelis, the team of the documentary, Encounter Point had to travel throughout Israel. The families which were followed by the non-profit organization greatly contributed and helped the team of the documentary as they were willing to reduce the hatred between the two nations. The goal of the families was observed to finish the war between the two nations that almost got devastating every day (Avni). The plot of the story

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Critical Thinking High School Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Critical Thinking High School - Essay Example Critical thing in Australian universities is a key factor in upgrading student's study skills (Triyoko, 2007). Critical thinking is an examination of the structures or elements of thought contained in all reasoning, such as purpose, problem, question-at-issue, assumptions, empirical grounding, reasoning towards conclusion, implications and consequences, obstructions from alternative view point, and frame of reference. Critical thinking can also be reflected through a person's curiosity to respond to variable subject matter, issues and purposes. Critical thinking is a concept that is incorporated in a company of intertwined modes of thinking, such as scientific thinking, mathematical thinking, historical thinking, anthropological thinking, economic thinking, moral thinking and philosophical thinking. Critical thinking exists in two components; one, critical thinking is viewed as a set of information and belief generating and processing skills. Two, critical thinking is viewed as a habit whose basis is strongly laid on intellectual commitment to use those skills to in guiding behavior. Critical thinking therefore, is very different from; mere acquisition and retention of information, because critical thinking has a peculiar way of seeking, attaining and treating information. Again, critical thinking is different from sheer possession of a set of skills, because, critical thinking is only complete if it exercises use of those skills continuously (Scriven & Paul, 1987). Critical thinking is not made a concept merely by acquiring skills and putting them into practice; it is fulfilled if the skills put into practice are observed to produce results which must be analyzed and accepted to be important into a certain body of knowledge. Critical thinking is governed by some specific motive guidance. Critical thinking which is guided by selfish motives is characteristic of skillful manipulation of ideas to suit the personal interests. Such motivated critical thinking is void of intellectuality, however practically successful it might be. Although such kind of motivated critical thinking can be directed by fair mind and intellectual integrity, it produces results of high order in terms of intellectuality; however, it is not innocent of biasness from idealism connected to its selfish motive. Critical thinking lacks universality in any individual (Scriven & Paul, 1987). All people are culprits of irrational thought. Its quality therefore depends on the quality and depth of experience in a particular field of thinking. The development of critical thinking is continual. It never stops. No one is a critical thinker all along. There are several strategies that are relevant for developing critical thinking in any individual, students included. In this paper, I will evaluate only three of the most common strategies of developing critical thinking used by tutors and students in the Australian Universities. These are, Affective Strategies, Cognitive Strategies - Macro-Abilities, and finally, Cognitive Strategies-Micro-Skills. Under Affective strategies, there are 9 strategies which generate ability to develop exercise critical thinking. I will discuss only one of these. This one is, Thinking Independently.

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Leadership Imperatives in the Arab-American University Essay Example for Free

Leadership Imperatives in the Arab-American University Essay Leadership in a school of higher and advanced learning such as the Arab-American University requires collaborative and confrontational challenges with a number of issues, typical but not limited to that of any educational institution. Such issues as cultural diversity, inclusivity, intellectual activities such as research and instruction, social involvements such as community extension services, students affairs, finance, marketing, strategic business models, organizational theories, profitability and shareholder value, political and social congruencies and differences, among others, often create deep chasms to and between the various school sectors that are ironically bound by a common purpose – quality education. This is made more demanding when Arab and American views are integrated in a single community. What unique leadership and management model therefore would apply under such a sensitive configuration? What risk management intervention would constantly prevail? What residual risks or synergy, if any, would be evident? Leadership and management in an educational institution are perhaps among the most formal, sensitive and confrontational roles a professional can assume. Business organizations established for profit are far easier managed and led as there is that environment and mandate of compliance required of every employee based on employment contracts and agreements. This compliance system gives the manager the elbow room to adopt an organizational approach under a theory x or y scenario. Admittedly, discipline under an entrepreneurial undertaking is demanded primarily to meet shareholder value targets and for survival secondarily. Universities are considered more complex than most organizational systems as they demand the most professional processes than any other institution. Schools are assumed to be the fount and cradle of learning, hence a strong exemplary modeling of instructors and administrators are always the subject of intensive scrutiny among other sectors. Would this university therefore require a business-like management style or an organization leadership mix that is as fluid as the socio-cultural and political dimensions? . In an age where socio-cultural and political diversities are characterized with the widest spectra and extremes, the establishment of an Arab-American intellectual Mecca can be expected to require the most intense professional and socio-cultural leadership anywhere. This study would be interested in identifying areas of collaboration while addressing confrontational issues and risks along the process. Similarly, the relevance of this study along multicultural settings in complex and diverse forms and in highly professional environment would transcend, even revolutionize all assumptions, hypothesis and even all forms of propositions about multicultural biases. Brief history of the Arab-American University The Arab-American University (AAU) was established in 1973 as non-sectarian, non-profit and non-government institution of higher learning. Its primary purpose is to address the educational needs of Arab-Americans starting from preschool to basic, secondary, higher education, to graduate and post-graduate levels. Among its goals and objectives include providing full scholarships to families of indigent but intellectually capable members of the Arab-American community in a specific area with a relatively high density of Arab-American families. While the university accepts Muslim students, it also caters to students from other religious and cultural denominations and groups.. The university is primarily a combination of a business college strongly oriented towards information technology and engineering courses, both technical and baccalaureate degrees. The university is composed of seven schools: the Schools of Business Management, Hospitality Management, Accountancy, Nursing and Midwifery, Medicine, Arts, Political and the Social Sciences, Polytechnic Institute composed of the Departments of Architecture, Computer Science, Electronic Communications Engineering, Civil and Mechanical Engineering and Fine Arts, its flagship programs includes Accountancy where it ranks among the top 50 business schools in the United States, Electronics Communications Engineering, Nursing, Hospitality Management and Mechanical Engineering. All seven schools are verticalized with their respective graduate schools. As of the year 2008, the university boasted a population of 30,000 highly selected students and scholars from 25 states and 15 countries mostly from the Middle East and Asian countries. Its student population increases by an average of 15 per cent and expected to hit 50,000 by 2012. Presently, it maintains two campuses – the Chicago and Urbana Campuses, each with its own charter and separate sets of faculty. All courses are offered in both campuses. For the last three years, AAU has garnered a number of academic awards, including twelve top researches awards in Accountancy, Computer Sciences, Nursing, Electronic Communications Engineering Awards. As of December 31, 2008, the school started to become consistent in its passing rate for the Accountancy, Nursing and Engineering courses all averaging about 80 per cent against the national norm of 40 per cent. For nursing, AAU has started to register a 100 per cent passing rate in the Nursing Board Examinations. All colleges and schools in the university are headed by a Dean of the College and are assisted by a Vice Dean with a pool of Academic Chairs for each of the courses or majors within the college. A Faculty secretary is the administrative officer of each college or school and must be a holder of a doctor’s degree in any of the courses in the college where he or she is assigned. The faculty secretary is the point person of every college but maintains a built-in six units of academic load in addition to his full-time administrative work. The university boasts of complete state of the art facilities for all of its laboratory classes including its basic education department. Its library is one of the most complete, up-to-date libraries in the world with the most comprehensive collection of traditional and electronic materials. During the last five years, the university has been the recipient of awards for excellence in community involvement and extension services. Its research center laboratory enjoys an endowment fund from where it trains and maintains its pool of researchers from the ranks of the faculty. Leadership Efficiency and Effectiveness and the primary key concepts adopted in the university Just like any school of advanced learning, the university is a complex organization that adheres to the mission, vision, goals and objectives it has demanded from itself and its academic and non-academic employees the highest standards of professionalism, responsiveness, community involvement, strong, visible and dynamic research-orientations and the disciplinary but compassionate relationship maintained with the students of all levels. To be effective and efficient, the university periodically asserted its need to formalize and communicate its strategic, tactical and operational plan in the same other successful organizations do. (Robbins, 2003). Looking ahead and beyond the current situations in the industry, (in this case the education sector) brings uncertainties and risks into the open and allows the organization a clear means of managing, confronting and even avoiding those uncertainties and risks. (Shaw,2003). The university makes sure that it conducts its strategic planning session annually before the onset of the succeeding year in time for translating the strategic level into the tactical component as well as operationalizing the tactical level. (Anthony Govindarajan, 2001). Similarly, AAU never fails to conduct an evaluation and assessment of its preset plans as means of determining where it is and what constraining and enabling factors it is experiencing. (Atkinson et al, 2003). This evaluation additionally renders the university an effective means of addressing change (Koller as cited by Robbins, 2003). These planning and change management processes articulates AAUs assertion of leadership under inherent socio-cultural complexities through clear visioning and communication initiatives to all its stakeholders that for many years, have been encouraged to actively participate in the planning sessions. This has greatly contributed to the overwhelming atmosphere of professionalism in the university. The senior administrators of AAU may not have formal training on complexity management, but their organizational leadership styles enable the attainment of an enviable cohesiveness as a team with a common purpose of being; that of addressing ignorance and mediocrity where they are needed. AAU’s uniqueness stems from its capability to harness its management with the leadership character to instill regulatory and policy compliance without having to assert authority and power in between (House cited by Robbins, 2003). It is surprising that even under intense pressure to compete and manage the scarce resources provided endowment; the AAU is able to integrate the sensitive and complex balance scorecard approach in its strategic decision making. (Kaplan Norton, 2004). The university attributes this success factor on its priority for choosing its leaders under the trait theory that focuses on the personal qualities along charisma, exemplary modeling, attitude, enthusiasm and even personal traits common to both cultures as courage and determination. (Robbins,2003). Despite rigorous studies on identifying leadership traits for its management, supervisory and staff positions, the university correlates traits such as drive and ambition, integrity which includes honesty and sincerity, competence along knowledge and skills and even sense of sacrifice. (Robbins,2003). The university however, continues to experience a dearth of this type of managers with the leadership dimension due to the expansion and establishment of similar institutions outside of the United States. Thus, aware of this constraint, AAU emphasizes its executive and management development training programs to prepare the transition of its key people towards the great demand for exemplary modeling (DelaTorre, 2006); that is, managers and leaders who took initiatives to address the personal needs of the employees as means of making them more productive in the process. (Robbins, 2003). The university seldom experiences the risks of the groupthink factor (Shafritz Ott on Janis,1992) as it respects the need for all decision makers to be extremely knowledgeable and skilled in the decision making processes. Being a part of its strategic objectives, the annual development programs encourage AAU employees to be continuously motivated, through the behavioral theory approach, effectively deciding as a team in addressing organizational objectives. This motivational drive expands the employees horizons and capabilities towards job satisfaction and sustainable learning and growth of its human capital (Kaplan Norton, 2003). As a result, AAU has achieved in just 25 years what other universities tried to accomplish in a century and under the most challenging multicultural scenarios. On one hand, the leadership and management mix being adopted in the university guarantees and assure empowerment of units and people towards autonomy and self-regulation. This is granted after intensive training on decision making and university processes that includes appreciation and utilization of marketing researches and theories in support of policy formulation and implementation. The immense authorities and power given especially to the respective heads of offices, primarily the Deans of Colleges and Schools, are always tempered with management control systems to guide all decisions towards achievement of goals every inch of the way. The resultant good governance, control and transparency outcomes of this empowerment initiatives unburdens the senior management with operational concerns, thus allowing this level a clear focus on the strategic direction of the university and strengthening its social and political influence through good governance and risk management processes (Shaw,2003) On the other hand, the administrative efficiency has been excellently adopted through specialization and responsibility accounting that enables units to address issues at every level strengthening the span of control while focusing tasks towards a specific class of clients, concerns and even the university campus designated purposely for the educational services. (Shafrits Ott on Simon, 1992). The leadership styles and practices exercised by the AAU stakeholder group are creating new levels of efficiency and effectiveness in the hierarchy and creating precedents as well as new theories to emerge in the realm of university value-based (Koller, 1994) management and organizational leadership. These new learning and growth perspectives have revolutionized the balanced scorecard (Horngren et al, 2000) and stakeholder principles (DelaTorre, 2006) with an exemplary mix of leadership innovations. Despite the control risks that mix might be spawned by the staff turnovers experienced during the last few years, the university has maintained a loyalty index of more than ten years among its people. This is a sustainability plus factor in human resource management of the school. Other key principles and concepts adopted In the area of instruction, research and extension services for example, excellence in the classroom is primarily driven by a strongly motivated select members of the faculty pool whose training and development focus is based on aligning the needs of the teachers with the needs of the university. This congruency theory in objectives (DelaTorre, 2006) allows for mutual and beneficial relationship between faculty providers and students. The intervention theory (Shafrits Ott on Argyris, 1992) in organizations demands a strong psychotherapy approach (Rogers Roethlisberger, 2000) to communications. The theory presupposes the presence of a special relationship between people to enable openness and transparency among constituents. Teachers display this practice in terms of open and complementary student advising and counseling sessions not only as part of the intervention process but a critical part of the formation process in education. Students need and demand attention in the form of interventions especially in difficult and complex scenarios they find themselves in the process of earning a degree. Thus this psychotherapy theory helps in providing a strong motivational environment in the classroom opens avenues for students to be creative and enthusiastic about their career plans. Secondarily, this special attention given to student clientele becomes a strong promotional and marketing tool for the university in attracting students even from those school already established. The need for any intensive advertising and marketing efforts to project the identity of the schools are addressed by the students themselves who become informal marketing and testimonial proofs of quality education. This has expanded the market of the university even to those non-Arab-Americans who appreciate the philosophy that the school articulates and manifests through its graduates. Managing and leading a university in the current socio-economic environment becomes problematic even under the various principles of organization (Shafritz and Ott on Cohen and March, 1992). These anarchic ambiguities of purpose, power, experience and success can render even the most competent university president to fail in some circumstances in due time. Thus the management and organizational leadership mix is both critical and mandatory. This allows the president to grab the appropriate management and leadership tool at a given situation and scenario and exert and even allow certain precedent-setting decisions to effect changes with the least minimum resistance or optimum cooperation. Thus, inability along this line runs the risk of getting confused with his leadership character or manager authority or some hybrid in between. For AAU, the consultation process with the constituents and stakeholders becomes the medium by which decision critical to every office head’s functions are articulated. This explores the best idea possible while addressing and dissipating potential resistance to any innovations and measures not easily understood or appreciated.

Thursday, November 14, 2019

Analysis of Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad Essay -- Marlow Heart o

Analysis of Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad Heart of Darkness is a story about Marlow’s journey to discover his inner self. Along the way, Marlow faces his fears of failure, insanity, death, and cultural contamination on his trek to the inner station. Marlow, who goes on his journey to meet Kurtz, already has a fascination with Kurtz after listening to many people along the way. Conrad tries to show us that Marlow is what Kurtz had been, and Kurtz is what Marlow could become. Marlow says about himself, "I was getting savage," meaning that he was becoming more like Kurtz. Along the trip into the wilderness, they discover their true selves through contact with the native people. On one occasion, the steamer is attacked by a party of natives, killing the helmsmen and frightening the crew. This event triggers a change in Marlow, who takes off his shoes, which were covered in his friend’s blood. This taking off of clothes is a return to nature, bringing about a more primitive Marlow. Even as Marlow ventures further up the Congo, he feels like he is traveling ba...

Monday, November 11, 2019

Do Parents Matter

Within today’s society and the way the family is portrayed within the media, the family life has changed considerably. The family setup and how parents now discipline their children and their skills to do so, have come under attack. With the increase of children committing crimes and anti social behaviour orders being handed out like sweets its seems that almost everyone is looking for someone to blame for the up rise in bad behaviour with the children of our country. There has been blame pointed at the lack of discipline given out by the courts, the television and media, how family’s are structured in today’s society’ compared to years ago and the majority of blame lies with the parents. This essay will look at â€Å"Do parents matter† as this is a huge issue and has vast implications I am going to look at the issue of Divorce. I will be looking at the theories of attachment and separation and how children who are involved with divorce cope and if the issue of gender, culture or ethnicity differs ahead to the outcome of â€Å"Do Parents Matter† The government’s reports that roughly 50% of all marriages in today’s society fail, reasons for the failure include poor communication or lack of communication, financial issues and even the circumstances of the marriage all contribute to the ending of what once seemed the perfect relationship. Within these failed marriages are children, confused and unsure of what the future holds for them. Unsure of how to deal with the split, having to choose which parent to leave behind and which parent to stay at residence with, decisions like these can cause trauma within certain children, thus the question is raised â€Å"Do parents matter? † According to John Bowlby, Attachment is a special emotional relationship that involves an exchange of comfort, care, and pleasure. John Bowlby devoted extensive research to the concept of attachment, describing it as a â€Å"lasting psychological connectedness between human beings† Bowlby shared the psychoanalytic view that early experiences in childhood have an important influence on development and behaviour later in life. Our early attachment styles are established in childhood through the infant/caregiver relationship. In addition to this, Bowlby believed that attachment had an evolutionary component, it aids in survival. The propensity to make strong emotional bonds to particular individuals is a basic component of human nature† (Bowlby, 1988) Bowlby believed that there are four distinguishing characteristics of attachment: Proximity Maintenance – The desire to be near the people we are attached to. Safe Haven – Returning to the attachment figure for comfort and safety in the face of a fear or threat. Secure Base – The attachment figure acts as a base of security from which the child can explore the surrounding environment. Separation Distress – Anxiety that occurs in the absence of the attachment figure. With James Robertson he identified three stages of separation response amongst children, Protest to the mother figure for re-attachment (related to separation anxiety) Despair and pain at the loss of the mother figure despite repeated protests for re-establishment for relationship. (related to grief and mourning), and Detachment or denial of affection to the mother-figure. (related to defence). These phases are universally seen in children who go through separation, either by loss of parent/s due to death, divorce or through boarding school. Bowlby identified that infants need one special relationship for internal development. No variables have more far-reaching effects on personality development than a child's experiences within the family. Starting during his first months in his relation to both parents, he builds up working models of how attachment figures are likely to behave towards him in any of a variety of situations, and on all those models are based all his expectations, and therefore all his plans, for the rest of his life. † (J. Bowlby, Attachment and Loss (1973, p. 369)) Children’s parents, who separate in the younger years of the child, are more likely to suffer under Bowlby’s theory, due to the absent of the early attachment bond. Bowlby in 1951 produced a report which argued that infants form a special relationship with their mother which is different from any relationship which they form with any other kind of person. Attachment is formed with the mother within the first six months of life and if the attachment or bond is broken either by death or separation the child would suffer considerable consequences. Although the attachment to either parent is still a considerable one, Bowlby’s work looks at the mother in particular or a significant caregiver. Bowlby theory of separation has great strengths within the family structure, it explains how early attachment is essential for a stable life span of the child. â€Å"The Nature of the Child’s Tie to His Mother† (1958), â€Å"Separation Anxiety† (1959), and â€Å"Grief and Mourning in Infancy and Early Childhood† (1960) are Bowlby’s first formal statements of attachment theory, building on concepts from ethology and developmental psychology. Bowlby theories of attachment are followed closely by Byng-Hall and Mary Ainsworth. Byng-Hall suggests that the family contributes to attachment by providing a secure family base. He’s definition of secure base is â€Å"a family that provides a reliable and readily available network of attachment relationships, and appropriate caregivers, from which all members of the family are able to feel sufficiently secure to explore their potential†. Byng-Hall suggests that there are two factors associated with a secure family base. First, he suggests that there is a shared awareness that attachment relationships are important and care for others is a priority in the family. Second, he contends that family members should support one another in providing care for each other. The weakness factors that undermine a secure base in families include fear of losing an attachment figure or actual loss of an attachment figure. A child clings to one caregiver and rejects relationships with other caregivers. Byng-Hall refers to this as â€Å"capturing† an attachment figure. Turning to an inappropriate attachment figure (i. e. , if one parent is not supporting the other parent, a child may be used as an attachment figure). Conflict within relationships particularly abusive relationships. Negative self-fulfilling prophecies, there is an expectation that losses from other generations will be repeated. Mary Ainsworth â€Å"Strange Situation Procedure† study confirms the theory of Bowlby and investigates how a child makes an attachment to its mother or main caregiver. Ainsworth's research revealed key individual differences among children, demonstrated by the child's reaction to the mother's return. Ainsworth categorised these responses into three major types. Anxious/avoidant—the child may not be distressed at the mother's departure and may avoid or turn away from her on her return. Securely attached—the child is distressed by the mother's departure and easily soothed by her on her return. Anxious/resistant—the child may stay extremely close to the mother during the first few minutes and become highly distressed at her departure. When she returns, the child will simultaneously seek both comfort and distance from the mother. The child's behaviour will be characterised by crying and reaching to be held and then attempting to leave once picked up. Using the Strange Situation procedure, many researchers have studied the development of child attachment to the mother and significant caregiver. However, the weaknesses show there continues to be much debate about the origins of the child's reaction in the Strange Situation, and about what factors influence the development of an infant's attachment relationships. The attachment and separation theory is apparent when Divorce occurs within the family home. Children involved show emotional upset to a parent that leaves the residential home, thus causing a disturbance to the dynamics of the family structure. Behaviour of children is displayed in a number of formats from acceptance to the extreme of being issued an anti social behaviour order. The development of a child is determined by the nature of the environment and the nurture that has been given. The different stages of attachment are related to the age of the child, thus gender, culture, ethnicity and socio-economic status are not considered, however all of these areas do influence the situation considerably. Children are known to favour one parent more so than another, Divorce within a white European family compared to a black West Indian family can have extreme differences. Due to culture beliefs’ and family pressures. West Indian and Asian family divorce rates are far lower than the European statistics. Ethnicity of a family also influences the up bringing of a child and how the parents are treated and perceived. Bowlby theory states that the mother or main caregiver is needed for a stable upbringing. Younger children in particular have a hard time dealing with the changes that are occurring at this time. A child’s reaction to this depends upon their age and their ability to comprehend what is happening. Consistency is very import to younger children and the trauma of their parents separating is extremely difficult for them to handle. The loss of routine, the change in daily habits and the loss of friend’s school and other familiar patterns is especially difficult. When a father is excluded from the family home, reports show that the majority of crime and anti social behaviour are committed from one parent families, studies of young criminals show that over 70% of juveniles imprisoned come from fatherless homes, once the influence of a strong male character disappears the child reacts in a negative manner, acting up, causing a disturbance are some of the symptoms a child goes through. It appears that father absence may have different effects on boys and girls. Boys tend to experience more academic and social disruption when fathers are not present in the household. Father absence challenges girl’s emotional stability but does not seem to undermine their school performance. A boy who lives alone with his mother does not have a male role model in the home to teach him how to shave or kick a football or ask a girl out for a date, all of these things are extremely important to our social integration. Children who grow up without fathers in the home seem to have more likelihood to experience, drug and alcohol abuse, poverty, lack of opportunity to succeed, sex at an early age, pregnancy, behaviour problems, crime involvement, dropouts from school. These experiences are more likely to occur during adolescence because changes are happening so fast in this age group. Much supervision is needed at this time and is hard to enforce without a dad in the house, especially with teenage boys. As teens enter these years they tend to be closer to the same sex parent and look in that direction for guidance. Girls are stressed and likely to be depressed having no father in the home. â€Å"Stepmothers are found to have more problematic relationship with stepchildren; while children, particularly girls, also experience higher stress when they are living with their stepmothers. (Jacobson, 1987 in Visher ; Visher, 1993). Visher ; Visher (1979) suggested that teenage daughters identify strongly with their mothers and resent any woman who replaces their mother for the father's affection. Teenage daughters also exhibit much competitiveness with their stepmothers for their father's affection. These findings suggested that there are strong situational dynamics at work that create special relationship problems for stepmother families. Difficulty between the children's mother and stepmother has also been mentioned as a possible contribution to the greater stress in stepmother families. (Visher & Visher 1988)† Boys are more likely to act out and become discipline problems which upsets the mother. They try to take over the role of the dominant male in the household. Girls show their longing for a father figure by getting â€Å"boy-crazy† and can tend to end up with men who treat them badly. Girls need a father to demonstrate how a man acts in a family relationship. It seems that girls who have to guess pick the wrong boys and men. † Biblarz and Raftery (1999) show that mother-absence is much more detrimental than father-absence to children's educational and occupational attainment. They find that once parents' socioeconomic status is taken into account, children raised by single mothers are much better off than children raised by single fathers or fathers and stepmothers, and are just as likely to succeed as children raised by both birth parents. Biblarz and Raftery conclude that the pattern of effects across family types and over time is consistent with an evolutionary perspective which emphasizes the importance of the birth mother in the provision of children's resources (Trivers 1972). According to this view, children raised by their birth mothers do better than children raised apart from their birth mothers. Furthermore, being raised by a single birth mother is better than being raised by a birth mother and step-father since step-fathers compete with children for mother's time and lower maternal investment. Dealing with children who suffer from the separation of a loved parent is difficult. Social Services and Social Workers have to treat and understand the child’s needs in relation to its personal case. The Children’s Act 2004 assists with the legal framework and legislation of needs but it is that of a Social Worker and their ability and knowledge that assists with the emotional needs of the children, thus enabling them to deal with the separation to the best of their ability and co-ordinate any addition services that may be required. Behaviour, socialisation skills, and how we treat other people are pronominally learnt through our parents. It is the nurture of a parent that encourages a child to develop into a citizen that society requires and needs. It is fully reported that Divorce causes catastrophic effects on certain children; I believe that this is true due to non communication from the parents involved, what, how and the effects the children experienced are due to how the situation was tackled. Parents have an integral position in children’s lives whether they own biological offspring or offspring obtained via a separation or new relationship. Children from a Divorced separated family background are more likely to experience difficulties later on into adult life, male children having anger related issues, female children having trust and insecurity problems all transpiring from the divorce of the parents. These extremely worrying issues can be overcome with the communication, knowledge and experience of the parents in educating their children and showing a positive influence in their lives, with the theory of Bowlby and Ainsworth, I would like to conclude that in my opinion, yes parents do matter. References http://www.litnotes.co.uk/mass_media.htm http://www.sociology.emory.edu/tdowd/SOC769rsyllabus.htm http://www.psychology.sunysb.edu/attachment/online/inge_origins.pdf

Saturday, November 9, 2019

“A Rose For Emily” by William Faulkner †Foreshadowing Essay

Foreshadowing is often used by an author to heighten the interest in the story. The author of â€Å"A Rose for Emily† foreshadows the discovery of Homer Barron’s body in a few different ways. The smell that develops around Emily’s house, and Homer never returning to Emily’s house are both foreshadowing what happens later in the story. When Emily went into the drug store saying â€Å"‘ I want the best you have. I don’t care what kind'†,(William Faulkner) and purchased rat poison, it immediately informed the reader that somebody is the story was going to die. While reading this story, I believed that Emily purchased the rat poison in order to kill herself, not Homer Barron. Right at the end of the story, when the door to the house gets opened, the Negro immediately leaves, which indicates that he has got something to hide. We soon find out that he indeed had something to hide, Homer Barron’s body. Emily Grierson’s portrayal of reality is completely different from the reality surrounding her. Emily doesn’t allow the mayor to put up a mailbox in front of her house, and refuses to accept the fact that there might be mail coming to her house. She believes that since she doesn’t have any actual friends, there will be no mail getting delivered to her house. She believes that since nobody is friends with her, she should have no mail. Emily refuses to accept a lot of things. She also refuses to pay taxes because she has â€Å"‘no taxes in Jefferson (William Faulkner). After her father’s death Emily had been dismissed of paying taxes and had still not realized that time had gone by and things had changed. Emily also refused to accept her father’s death and follow the rules at the pharmacy when asked to identify the reason she that she needs rat poison. Emily Grierson does not seem to understand that things change as time passes by. Homer may have changed his mind about being with Emily, but Emily did not want to accept this fact. This may have c aused her to keep Homer with her forever, in her own, sick, twisted way.

Thursday, November 7, 2019

Case study 2 Essay

Case study 2 Essay Case study 2 Essay Daniel Serna MBA Case Study 2 Enron How did the corporate culture of Enron contributed to its bankruptcy? These leaders was motivated by greed, money and power. Enron was once one of the Top Fortune 500 Company. The culture of this company was to make profits and as the company gain momentum, many people join the bang wagon of deceitful practices and the demise grown amongst the upper management for Enron. However, the accounting method was question by the accountability of people for the organization including upper management. People have to understand that corporate America cannot be trusted to police themselves. Integrity was not a hiring trait imposed by Enron’s upper management. Even today, we face challenges that we learn from Enron but it was also a returning effect like in the house market fall. Just like Enron, the CEO and CFO become unethical which cause a tough problem for the community that they service and at times it a major effect. Even the hiring practice of working to terminate the bottom 20 percent of the workforce due to the lack of progress within 6 months. Did Enron’s bankers, auditors, and attorneys contributed to Enron’s demise? If so how? Every one of these people were involved and play a part to the downfall to Enron. However, the attorney for the company should be sued for malpractice due to the fact that they provide approval and opinion to decision made by the CFO and others. The attorney themselves open themselves up for liability and increased the power of Enron to continue to operate even when they company books were not correct. Since the attorney were invested were profiting from Enron, they too were needing to be policed. Enron was one of their top clients, they continue to bill Enron for their services. This Houston firm made millions in billable and remain quite. Merrill Lynch was also part of the demise. Although the role of the banker were limited but because of sale and profits they too covered for Enron. The one reason was when an analyst that exposed an Enron executive practice. Then Enron retaliated by keeping info from Enron to other stock offers. Furthermore the banker continue to have sha dy practices that caused more financial downfall. What role did the company’s chief financial officer play in creating the problem that led to Enron’s financial

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

Learn Artist Idioms in Context

Learn Artist Idioms in Context Here is a discussion of what makes an artist. The focus is on personality characteristics and youll find 15 new idioms defined below used in context in the story.  Try reading one time to understand the gist without using the idiom definitions. On your second reading, use the definitions to help you understand the text while learning new idioms. Finally, take the quiz after the reading to practice the idioms and expressions youve learned. The Artist What makes an artist an artist? Well, there probably isnt any easy answer to that question. However, there are some personality characteristics that many artists seem to have in common. First of all, artists come from all walks of life. They may have been born rich or poor, but they are all dedicated to realizing what only they can see in their minds eyes. Another common trait of artists is that they do things according to their own lights. In fact, for many of them, creating art is do or die. Of course, that also means that they are often perfectionists. Theyll lose themselves in a new creation and you might not see them for the next few weeks. Often, you might drop by to check up on how they are doing and youll discover that their apartment is anything but spick-and-span. Its no wonder because theyve sunk their teeth into their latest work and completely lost all track of time. Housework is certainly the last thing on their mind! Of course, this lifestyle often means that they can barely make ends meet. Jobs are few and far between and money comes in dribs and dabs. This is true even for up-and-coming superstars whose reputation is growing by leaps and bounds. Finally, artists see art as an end in itself. Its not about the money to them. Theyre different from normal people who mind their ps and qs. Artists challenge us with their vision. Theyd never slap something together that just looks pretty. Idiom and Expression Definitions do something according to your own lights do something your own way, follow your own inspiration rather than that of othersall walks of life from many different backgrounds, classes, etc.  an end in itself something done only for the pleasure of doing itbreak new ground create something new, innovatedo or die (used as an adjective) absolutely necessarydribs and dabs little by little, not happening continuously  in your minds eye in your imaginationby leaps and bounds grow or improve very quicklylose yourself in something become so involved that you dont notice anything elsemake ends meet earn enough money to live onmind your ps and qs be normal, not interfere with other peoplesink your teeth into something concentrate on doing a project seriously for a long timeslap something together create something without much care to detailspick-and-span extremely cleanup-and-coming soon to be famous, young talent becoming successful   Idiom and Expression Quiz Im afraid I cant follow your suggestion. I prefer to paint __________.Can you see that picture __________?Our son is very good at the piano. In fact, hes improving __________.Unfortunately, money is very tight at the moment. I dont have a steady job so the money is coming in __________.Id love to _________ my __________ a new project.Its important that your house is _________ if you want to sell it.Peter is an _________ musician. Hell soon be famous.I think this work of art ________. Its completely different from anything before.Please be quiet and __________. I dont want to be bothered.Students attending the academy come from __________. Youll find people from all over the world with different backgrounds.   Quiz Answers according to my own lightsin your minds eyeby leaps and boundsdribs and dabssink my teeth intospick-and-spanup-and-comingbreaks new groundmind your ps and qsall walks of life You can learn more idioms and expressions in context with these stories.