Saturday, August 31, 2019

Analyse and Discuss the Merits and Best Use

Analyse and discuss the merits and best use of management skills Throughout the essay I hope to be able to interpret the management skills that are essential in today’s working environment. I will also hope to explain my own positive and negative experiences I have come across throughout my working career. The main areas I will cover in this essay on management skills are Leadership, Teamwork, Partnership, Networking, Delegation and Negotiation. We all want to be the best manager we can be, whether it is for your business, small project or social event or to meet targets in your workplace.Unfortunately most people have experienced bad managers or at least bad management skills in your work or personal life. The benefits of being a very good manager is that you have a productive and happy workforce or team enabling you to achieve great results and for team members feel valued and feel they are making worthwhile contribution to the project and to themselves. Agha Hasan Abedi quo tes â€Å"The conventional definition of management is getting the work done through people, but real management is developing people through work† So how do you enable the people to achieve the best for your team?One way is to have excellent leadership skills, so a manager can lead a team to success, whether that would be one section of a project or being able to hit all the targets, to give the company financial benefits. An excellent leader would be a manager that could lead by example, showing their team that they can work hard, put the effort in, are not shunning the menial and difficult work and are willing to â€Å"get their hands dirty† with the team to create success. A leader also has to be the person viewing the team analytically. . e. looking in on the team so that they have the knowledge of their team’s positive and negative points, so they can utilise the person with the right skills for the right task and to train the staff to enable someone or ev eryone to achieve their goal and the teams overall accomplishment. I once worked for the Welsh Assembly in the data capture department for the farming subsidies; I had one main and three deputy managers and worked with between fifty and sixty temporary agency and assembly staff.The managers never once talked individually to their staff to see what their experience was or what their needs were to be able to give the right procedure or training to the right person. Everyone was grouped together and was told to get on with it. This meant that regularly we would have to go over work already done as there were so many mistakes and the quality of the project was put in jeopardy. The end result was that the farmers were often paid very late for land they did not own for farms that did not exist. The Welsh Assembly did pay one farmer over ? 40,000 for farm land that was situated in the North Sea!Just by talking and listening to their staff, working beside them and finding the right person f or the job, a lot of time and money and reputations could have been saved. Teamwork – no goals can be achieved or positive results gained for a project without co-workers, subordinates or friends working effectively together. For any group of people to work together effectively there must be someone who will stand as the manager of the team; so they can lead the team into working as a whole to achieve success; someone who can address any problems and help to find a solution ensuring everyone feels positive in their role in the team.As a manager of a team you need to be able to set the direction, provide guidance and support, co-ordinate the teams’ activities, ensure that each team member plays his or hers part, promote the learning and development of team members, consult the team on issues affecting its work and in conjunction with team members, monitor, and review team performance. If all this can be achieved a manager can lead their team to success time and time aga in.Striving to gain larger profits, market share or to outmanoeuvre business competitors requires capitalizing on highly effective partnerships either internally within a field or business or externally to start collaboration from an assisting field. Partnerships can also ensure the business or project has the capabilities to support it and can evolve initiatives. The strategy of connectivity to other people and entities is now crucial for innovation and overall success. â€Å"Businesses today must propagate connections that provide resources they don’t possess in house and enable them to move quickly to profit. states Mr Stephen Dent from Partnership Continuum. Smart partnerships win not only because of what they do but, even more importantly, from how they do it. They win from leveraging their connectedness and from valuing the building of relationship skills. Partnerships can produce astonishing results—but only when information flows freely, people trust each othe r, and are loyal to each other and their mutual success. Managers and people can get things done by networking.Networks are organized connections between people with shared interests when they exchange information, enlist support and create alliances getting agreement with others on a course of action and joining forces to make it happen. It is an essential way of getting things done in organizations – it ensures that the informal organization works. They exist to meet a need and can be dispersed if that need no longer exists, only to be reformed when it reappears. Networks may just consist of people with similar aims or interests who communicate with one another or get together as required.To start networking you have to identify people who may be able to help, seize any opportunity that presents itself to get to know people who may be useful, have a clear idea of why you want to network – to share knowledge, to persuade people to accept your proposal or point of view , or to form an alliance. You have also got to know what you can contribute – networking is not simply about enlisting support, it is just as much if not more concerned with developing knowledge and understanding and joining forces with like-minded people so that concerted effort can be deployed to get things done.Ask people if you can help them as well as asking people to help you. Operate informally but be prepared to call formal meetings when necessary to reach agreement and plan action. Make an effort to keep in touch with people. Networks are sometimes set up formally in organizations, for example the ‘communities of interest’ that are created to exchange and share knowledge and experience. Networks can also exist outside the business.Again, they may consist of like-minded individuals exchanging information and meeting informally, or they may be set up formally with regular meetings and newsletters. But however you make a network they are very useful, especi ally in these changing times. When I was working in the medical recruitment field for Lifeline locums I began networking when I realised that the business needed more market share of the Welsh NHS positions and to increase the amount Private/NHS general practitioners we could locum. I joined a lot f medical recruitment committees and medical business networks to try and get to the right people who could introduce me to persons who could help the company win business inside the confines of the NHS. I was also informed of a number of NHS tenders to provide locums for certain hospitals that I believe won through networking. This raised the company’s profits fourfold and ensured I had a healthy bonus for the years to come. Even 8 years on I am still in touch with many of the people I made connections with then.The art of delegation is a precise one that requires time and forethought, time to build a strategy, team member development and realism. Every manager is as good as their team around them and as a manager it is impossible to try and do everything yourself, whether it is because you are afraid of giving over some of the control or that you cannot trust other team members to do the work as well as you, sooner or later you will have to be able to delegate to someone.Delegation can feel like more work and more hassle than it's worth, however if you can delegate effectively, it is possible to hugely expand the amount of work that can be completed. When you arrange the workload so that you are working on the tasks that have the highest priority for you, and other people are working on meaningful and challenging assignments, everyone is happier. To delegate effectively, choose the right tasks to delegate, identify the right people to delegate to, and then be available if required.When I was working in America I used a template like this to be able to make a logical step before I made the decision about whom I could delegate to, this also helped study what t ypes of skills I would need. I could then try to find the best match I had within my team or what was needed to develop them to be able to complete it successfully. Although in my case this template, was normally scratched onto one of my paper food sacks from the fruit company I owned in Colorado. Delegation template| Skill/ Ability | Specific Task or Objective| Measures| Agreed(is it? | Realistic(is it? )| Timings(start/finishdates)| Actions | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Negotiating is the process of communicating back and forth, for the purpose of reaching a joint agreement about differing needs or ideas. It is a collection of behaviours that involves communication, sales, marketing, psychology, sociology, assertiveness and conflict resolution. A negotiator may be a buyer or seller, a customer or supplier, a boss or employee, a business partner.It is a process of interaction by which two or more parties who consider that they need to be jo intly involved in an outcome but who initially have different objectives, seek by the use of argument and persuasion to resolve their difference in order to achieve a mutually acceptable solution. Another important consideration is that negotiation implies acceptance by both parties that agreement between them is required before a decision can be implemented. In an ideal situation, you will find that the other person wants what you are prepared to trade, and that you are prepared to give what the other person wants.Depending on the scale of the disagreement, some preparation may be appropriate for conducting a successful negotiation. For small disagreements, excessive preparation can be counter-productive because it takes time that is better used elsewhere. It can also be seen as manipulative because, just as it strengthens your position, it can weaken the other person's. So, in conclusion to ensure that you become an effective manager and have the right skills to be able to steer y our team to success you will undoubtedly have to work hard, find out about the people who are working with you and develop a trusting relationship together.But that is not all; you will need to show you can work hard with them and for them, see what they can do with and without you. See what you could do to develop your team around you and every once in a while take a step back every now and then to see the bigger picture about you and your team. Even within these management skills you have to remember to look outside your team or company and see if there are benefits in creating a network from similar fields or departments that could help strengthen your abilities. Also look out for partnerships that could develop mutual benefits.I hope this has explained the benefits of management skills and this has helped you to understand the examples of my previous working life. But I hope above all, that you remember to always stand tall and proud and be happy in your work. If you believe in yourself, others will to. | | | References Armstrong, A (2008) How to manage people. London. Kogan page limited Buckingham, M (2007) Go Put Your Strengths to Work: 6 Powerful Steps to Achieve Outstanding Performance. London (for Agha Hasan Abedi quote) Cole, G. A. (2004) Management – theory and Practice – Sixth Edition. London, South Western CENAGE learning Chapman, A. 2006-2011) Delegation (online) Business Balls http://www. businessballs. com/delegation. htm [accessed 12th December 2012) Dent, S. M. (2006) Partnership Relationship Management- Implementing a Plan for Success (online) Partnership Continuum, www. partneringintelligence. com (accessed 2nd Jan 2012) â€Å"Myopendraft† (2009) Management Skills – Networking (online) www. myopendraft. blogspot. com/2009 (accessed 2nd Jan 2012) Shah, K & Prof. Shah, P. J Date unknown Negotiating Skills (online) Available from http://www. laynetworks. com/Negotiating-Skills. html [accessed 14th Jan 2012) | |

Friday, August 30, 2019

In 1485 – 1603 to what extent was the government of England dysfunctional in the mid-Tudor period?

In the context of the years 1485 to 1603 to what extent was the government of England dysfunctional in the mid-Tudor period? During the Tudor Dynasty it is easily thought that the years between 1547 and 1558 were ones of crisis. With the succession of a child and the first woman within England, people have assumed that the years between Henry VIII and Elizabeth I were an unproductive interlude. The mid Tudor period is seen as negative years within the Tudor Dynasty.It is regarded that Henry VIII and Elizabeth I’s reputations were a factor in why historians such as A.F Pollard and S T Bindoff supported the ‘Mid Tudor Crisis’ . The ‘two little Tudors’, referring to Edward and Mary, seemed colourless in comparison to their surrounding successors, so much so that A Pollard says â€Å"Edward was portrayed as a sickly boy who, throughout his reign, was the pawn of two ‘regents’† while Mary was seen as an ‘intolerant, dogmatic and n eurotic woman who failed to produce an heir’ .Therefore it could be seen that people believed the years of crisis were at their most dysfunctional between the years 1547-1558. W R D Jones argued that Edward and Mary’s reigns were a period of religious disruption, large scale disorder and rebellion alongside the inefficiency and sterility in government and administration, social and economic problems and disastrous foreign policy. This supports the description of the mid-Tudor period being dysfunctional. However there could be influence from the 16th Century writers such as John Foxe who was author to ‘Book of Martyrs’, which was written just after Marys death and depicted her as a monster. Foxe was responsible for a lasting picture of Mary as it fitted prejudices of a confident.Under these circumstances it was not surprising that the period 1547 – 1558 were marked by disasters. However historians such as David Loades, Jennifer Loach and Robert Tittl er stress that there was much creativity in the period. Government under Duke of Northumberland and Mary continued to be effective; also there was continuity in religious beliefs and some foreign policy successes. There were problems within Edward and Marys reigns that were also found in times of Henry VIII and Elizabeth’s for example Pilgrimage of Grace in 1536, Spanish Armada in 1588 and social and economic problems in late 1590’s matched those in 1540’s.Therefore the significance of Edward’s and Mary’s reign was what did not happen rather than what did in supporting that their reigns were the least dysfunctional in England. But in order to gain an understanding of whether or not there was a â€Å"Mid-Tudor† crisis in this period, it is important to compare and contrast other periods of the Tudor dynasty. Some revisionist historians argue that certain areas of Henry VII’s reign, 1485-1509, involved a â€Å"crisis†, for exampl e the Pretenders of Lambert Simnel and Perkin Warbeck.Also the death of the next heir to the throne, Arthur Tudor, in 1502, Elizabeth I and the Pilgrimage of Grace, 1536, the greatest rebellion that threatened England during the reign of Henry VIII, which would have caused the monarchy more concern then the alleged Mid-Tudor crisis . Above all this however, was the Spanish Armada in 1588 during the reign of Elizabeth I. The Spanish Armada threatened national security. Revisionist views of this period have already questioned the presence of a dysfunctional government during the reigns of the Mid-Tudors. Historians such as S. J Lee and D.Loades argue that other parts of the Tudor regime were crisis ridden and that the Mid-Tudor period was relatively stable in comparison. When it came to foreign policy, Henry VII was far less extravagant than his son. Henry’s greatest achievement in foreign policy was possibly his alliance with the Catholic monarchs and the Treaty of Medina del Campo in 1489. After his policy successes he suffered a defeat in Brittany which was a low point for the King’s foreign policy. His main weaknesses in his foreign policy were not helped by the successive losses of his family members, firstly his son Arthur in 1502 and then his wife Elizabeth in 1503.He then failed to re-marry and achieve stronger diplomatic relations outside of England following the death of Elizabeth creating a weak government in England. Also the death of Isabella of Castile was another problem for Henry as he would have Ferdinand as his rival instead of an ally over territorial gains in Europe and in the New World. The later years of Henrys foreign policy were definitely his most challenging and difficult period of foreign affairs allowing the government to be weak and therefore vulnerable to a crisis.His son, Henry VIII was a commanding figure who immediately set about wanting to gain respect and authority in Europe. Henry VIII’s foreign policy can be divided into two separate periods of time in which he went to war. The first period was at the beginning of his reign, in 1509-1515, Henry enforced a policy of aggressive and glorious warfare, this policy allowed invasions to occur within in France and Scotland. He was victorious within both invasions however it was an expensive policy to initiate.The second time period was during the years 1540-1547, this is when Henry, yet again, wanted more glory and domination over foreign affairs. This period of foreign policy was extremely expensive and came at a great financial cost. The gaining of Boulogne and loss of military personnel, costing ? 2,144,765, achieved nothing greater than personal glory for Henry showing his reign as one of dysfunction. The disastrous warfare policy in France and Scotland left Henry’s son Edward with little in the treasury and no financial platform to build upon as well as weak alliances with these countries.Therefore Henry VIII weakened the govern ment for his sons reign which could have created a crisis, this supports that the mid-Tudor period was highly influenced by previous successors allowing any dysfunction to be partially blamed outside the years 1547-1558. So when the death of Henry VIII occurred, the throne was left to his child Edward VI in 1547 with England’s financial stability and foreign relation being left in a poor condition with uncertainty on whether it will recover. As Edward was a minor, his two Lord Protectors, firstly the Duke of Somerset and later Northumberland advised Edward with his decisions.Somerset’s administration was faced with rebellions and uprisings in 1549. The rebellions were part of a mixture of religious and social upheaval. Kett’s rebellion in Norfolk, suffered particularly seriously from the enclosure laws . They were not, however, a threat to the ruling dynasty in the way the Pretenders were to Henry VII. With Lord Somerset ruling at the beginning of Edwards reign, England yet again was at war with Scotland; however this time was without royal approval. Somerset funded his efforts against Scotland with money from the debased coinage.It is possible to say that Somerset allowed the foreign policy to dominate over other royal problems, especially the king’s finances, which he lost all control of . The economy within England suffered from inflation after the debasement of the coinage. This was mostly seen in England's wool and cloth exports as they collapsed in 1551, mainly because of prices rising. In 1552, an Act was passed regulating the manufacture of wool to try and encourage trade . The inflationary pressures increased due to a poor harvest in 1548.This led to unrest within the country that then provoked uprisings the following year in Cornwall and Devon . To some historians, it can be viewed that Somerset’s ruling was as if he was the King. This was thought due to Somerset treating Edward as a child and not respecting the Kin g’s authority. The lack of respect and underestimation of Edwards authority ultimately led to Somerset’s death. Due to the rebellions, this period under the ruling of Somerset it would be seen to be leading towards a crisis.The situation was rescued and turned around by the more pragmatic approach of Somerset’s successor, the Duke of Northumberland. Once Edward replaced Somerset and appointed Northumberland as his new protector, Northumberland faced the task of restoring the Crown’s finances. To do this, the expenditure would be reduced to fund the campaigns in France and Scotland. Northumberland entrusted Cecil with reorganising the Crown’s finances. This was seen as an achievement as Cecil managed to gain extra revenue out of the Church.Edward’s protectors Somerset and Northumberland had different ways of ruling. Somerset continued to debase the coinage and spend large amounts of money on placing troops in Scotland and going to war with Fr ance as if the king’s money was limitless. Northumberland on the other hand, helped by Walter Mildmay, the Treasurer, reorganised the governments finances which involved the stopping of debasement and pulling England out of conflicts with France and Scotland. This progress continued in to Mary I reign and then without Mary I, Elizabeth could never have completed the process of recoinage.This is argued in Michael Hutchings article: â€Å"Elizabeth’s government could never have tackled the coinage problem so swiftly had the ground not been prepared† . This allows Edward and Marys reigns to show great improvement and only positive progress regarding finance, therefore turning away from the period being a ‘crisis’. But the greatest action of the Duke of Northumberland’s financial success as Edward’s protector was to put an immediate end to the disastrous foreign wars in Scotland and France, wars which Somerset had financed .Northumberland had gained his funds by signing the Treaty of Boulogne in 1550 this stopped the expenditure flow out of Boulogne. Despite much criticism, Northumberland’s actions in foreign policy were positive due to England gaining financially, a profit of ?133,333 which was received from the French. Even though a truce was decided, there was still a constant threat from the Scots and French to the English security . J. Guy states that Northumberland’s success in foreign policy was due to ending Somerset’s wars . This is because Northumberland had recognised that foreign affairs should not be mixed into a domestic policy, which is something which Somerset failed to understand and led England towards a financial crisis.Edward’s full authority and respect as King is hard to assess, mainly because of his short reign as King and the fact that he had two Protectors at his side constantly. It is well known that Edward was an intellectual and had a strong grasp on how the gov ernment and court functioned due to being well educated and taught about ruling from an early age. But Edward’s death occurred too early to tell if he would have made a successful king.In theory it is thought that he had the skills and knowledge to rule England successfully. In David Starkey’s documentary about the reigns of Edward and Mary, it was said that Edward was â€Å"not a puppet King† and that he made decisions in court due to his knowledge of the government . Edward was naturally studious, intelligent and a devout Protestant. Apparently he was always self-disciplined and gained advanced knowledge of government, economics and the nobility from an early age due to his Father, Henry VIII, relying on his male heir to be his successor.Edward made decisions in his own interests, for example the disposal of Somerset. The King showed a lack of emotion and was described as â€Å"mature and driven† which was a combination of qualities from his two previou s successors. This does not support the belief of the mid-Tudor period being dysfunctional due to the qualities of Edward being a strong combination of the positive and successful qualities of the previous reigns, showing a solid base of a successful reign. After the death of the boy King Edward, for the first time a woman gained the throne of England.Mary’s initial concern before her rise to the throne was marriage and producing an heir for her reformed Catholic society. Foreign policy was not high on Mary’s list of priorities. Therefore the preference of gaining a foreign husband in Philip II of Spain allowed an Anglo-Spanish alliance against European rivals and gained Mary a husband. But her aim to gain a foreign husband was not welcomed by the English people as many felt that a male foreign ruler would take the control of England from the authority of Mary.This led the marriage to result in immediate discontent which brought uprisings in the country. The most threa tening rebellion was Wyatt’s Rebellion in 1554. The Wyatt rebellion arguably was the greatest threat to Mary’s reign. The social unrest brought into England, due to high unemployment figures was evident as many chose not recognise a foreign ruler in an English government. Although it represented a real threat to Mary the uprising never had the backing or strength to take over and control Mary so the possibility of a crisis was avoided.One of Mary’s greatest achievements economically, however, was her government’s plans for recoinage. Even though the completion of the recoinage took place after her death in Elizabeth’s reign, according to C. E. Challis ‘Elizabeth could never have tackled the problem of the coinage either as quickly or as effectively as she did had it not been so thoroughly aired amongst government officials in the immediately preceding years’ . This supports the purpose of Marys reign and shows that her reign was not an unproductive interlude before Elizabeth’s reign.David Loades supports the positive view towards Mary. He states that â€Å"she succeeded in enforcing her will over three major matters: her marriage, the return to Rome and the declaration of war† . In M. Hutchings article of Mary Tudor, he makes the statement that â€Å"Mary gave financial stability†¦ countered unemployment and social problems. Above all, simply by establishing her own claim to the throne and maintaining it, Mary re-established the legitimacy of the Tudor succession† . The Succession of Elizabeth I after Mary I as Queen of England occurred in 1558.The reputation of Elizabeth I is of high standard and she is considered as good as English monarch as some of the male rulers. The foundations of this reputation were found in the impressive nature of the Elizabethan court, the development of the English culture, the defeat of the Spanish Armada and her successful re-creation of the Church of Engl and following the death of the Catholic Mary I . However, during Elizabeth’s reign as Queen was full of revolts and uprisings. These included key revolts the Northern Earls revolt in 1569, The Ridolfi plot of 1571 and the Babington plot of 1586 which aimed to remover Elizabeth from the throne.The plots were due to the social, economic and religious unrest within England. The rise in population and vagrancy were issues in which Elizabeth had to contend with. Therefore these revolts do not portray a Queen who did not face crises throughout her long reign and also display more serious displays of dysfunction than that of the mid-Tudor period. During Elizabeth’s reign the Spanish Armada and social discontent was much more of a threat to the English crown than any other rebellion or foreign policy with the other monarchs in the Mid-Tudor period.The real possibility of invasion from a foreign force was more of a threat than any other rebellion during the reigns of Edward VI and Mary I but due to their successful reigns this was avoided. This is the Armada Portrait which was taken after her victory against the Spanish Armada. It depicts Elizabeth as the gloriana figure in her country. The picture portrays a stormy, defeatist view of the Spanish loss against the English navy with the picture showing light shaded sky, calm and steady water and the English navy in the foreground on the left side.On the right of the picture is the defeated Spanish Armada. However what dominates the picture is Elizabeth herself. The portrait displays Elizabeth in all her glory, with her flame red hair and whitened face . Her dress and jewels show her power as well as beauty. The portrait captures Elizabeth as a very beacon of defiance which suggests that her reign was one of no dysfunction but as one of many successes and victory, however due to much propaganda within the era this could be an unfair representation of Elizabeth’s reign.This portrait is named the Rainbo w portrait and Elizabeth is displayed in a light tone again. The crown symbolises her royalty and her clothes suggest that her royal magnificence and aura over the English people is maintained due to their extravagance. Elizabeth is holding a rainbow in her right hand. The rainbow symbolizes peace, and the inscription reminds viewers that only the queen's wisdom can ensure peace and prosperity . This could suggest that she is an idol to her people for showing defiance in the tough periods of the 1590s when poverty was rife and harvests failed in England.The snake on her left arm also denotes the wisdom of the Queen. The whole portrait is one of a warning to those who oppose Elizabeth. At the time of this portrait, Elizabeth was 60 years of age, the light shades of the portrait show the Queen as a youthful and a beautiful figure who is in control of her country. In the rainbow portrait, Elizabeth is ageless . All this is powerful propaganda and shaped people’s opinions and vie ws of her, this suggests that she needed to create a false view of herself in order to make up for the dysfunction during her reign.During the years 1485 to 1603 it is certain that financially they were extremely unstable in many different moments during the reigns of each monarch. Henry VII was the only monarch that kept control of his money and died with money left to pass down, this is the main reason as to why Henry VII is regarded as a successful King. However the enclosure issue and the Cornish rebellion threatened to drain him financially. So at the end of his reign, Henry’s popularity suffered greatly but despite this, Henry VII was able to provide his son with a large treasury to start him off as King.Henry VIII however failed to follow in his father’s footsteps. Even though Henry VIII did gain financially through the Break with Rome and the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1536, within his second period of â€Å"aggressive and glorious† warfare he use d all his money to go to war which left him with nothing financially. Even though during the next two reigns social unrest and major propaganda took hold, Mary in particular was effective in controlling the masses with her councillors and effective revenue and recoinage reforms.Also Edward was able to manipulate his two Lord Protectors despite being a minor; he had very good intellectual knowledge of the process of government and had the power to implement his policy into the country. The governments of the two monarchs were kept intact and were not as faction-ridden as Henry VIII’s final years as King. The Mid-Tudors if anything strengthened the finances of the government; stabilized the government and increased the diplomatic skills of the monarchy.The most significant part of the reigns is what didn’t occur as there was no breakdown in parliament, no overhaul of Royal Supremacy, no foreign invasion and no civil wars. Historians such as S. J Lee and D. Loades have pr esented the question of â€Å"Was there a Mid-Tudor crisis? † They reviewed the Mid Tudor period and allowed an argument to support Mary’s and Edwards reigns as the opposite of a crisis. Therefore I believe that the â€Å"Mid-Tudor crisis† is an over-exaggeration to describe the period of Edward and Mary.Even though there were a number of personal crises to test the Mid-Tudor monarchs such as being a child and the first woman on the throne, but nothing that threatened the public order, government and security. This is in comparison to other events during the period of 1485-1603, the Pilgrimage of Grace in 1536 threatened national security more than Wyatt’s rebellion of 1554. The pretenders to Henry VII’s throne, Lambert Simnel and Perkin Warbeck threatened to de-stabilize a Tudor regime that had only just begun following the Wars of the Roses in the 15th Century.And Elizabeth was not the â€Å"golden monarch† that she was portrayed as follow ing the succession crisis of 1603. The conclusion is that the Mid-Tudors have been unfairly criticized during their reigns due to the way in which they were depicted by their people and historian commentators, such as John Foxe, and it was until recently revisionist historians started to review the events of the Mid-Tudor period presenting an argument against the time period being a ‘crisis’ but as one of tests and tribulations that were all over come, showing a period of an effective government of England.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Contexts that Motivate Learning

Motivational learning can be broken into four contexts. Those contexts are: Practical, Personal, Experiential, and Idealistic. First, the practical context of learning would be learning something because you know in advance it will benefit you. Second, the personal context of learning would be learning something because you want to do it for yourself to accomplish an important goal. Third, the experiential context of learning would be learning something because of past experiences. Finally, the idealistic context of learning would be learning something because you want to explore ideas, theories and concepts to experience the discovery of something new. There are four main contexts that motivate people to learn and everyone has their own reasons. Personal Context of Motivation I decided to return to school for personal reasons. Returning to school is something that I have thought of doing for a very long time. I guess you could just say that I have been very lazy and procrastinated for a long time. I tried to go to college right out of high school but it did not work out. I don’t think I was quite prepared to make that big step. I was headed down the wrong path and decided it was time to do something with my life. I knew it would help me to grow as a person. I now find myself in sort of the same situation. I’ve been a cashier for 18yr and now I work hard every day loading a Goodwill trailer to support my kids I know that without a collage education that most likely will not happen. I also want to be a positive influence to my children and show him how important education is. I want to be a good influence to my son and daughter but most of all I want to better myself as a person. Plus most of all I know in 4 to 5 yr. my fibromyalgia will not be getting any better. By that time my R. A. in my back will be getting bad, I still have 8 yrs. left to support my little girl. I know I can’t do it working on the back of the trailer but maybe be hide a desk for Goodwill I can as a human resource manager

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

The irony of life is that it takes a life time to learn about life Essay

The irony of life is that it takes a life time to learn about life - Essay Example Consider the example of a businessperson who puts their business before everything else, they spend or their time working, ignore their family and probably end up in terrible health since they hardly ever made time to take care of their health. Like many wealth people with his characteristics, the richer he gets the more self-entered he becomes (Grewal 1). Thirty years down the line, the same individual, is contemplating his vast business empire from his deathbed with no one to visit him expect those interested in inheriting his wealth. His critical health and poor social relations result to his being alone in his last hours, and he realizes that, the most important thing in this life is not how much money you make, but how you use it to change your life and others for the better. A clichà ©, but nonetheless, a common moral lesson that has taken him a lifetime to learn, and when he finally gets it, he has no life left in which to practice it. Considering this analogy and many similar ones that can be drawn from life the irony of it all becomes clear, stuff takes a lifetime to learn, but that is all the time anyone

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Human resource management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words - 3

Human resource management - Essay Example Employee surveys have been invariably defined as questionnaires that employees are required to ensure that they fill out. These questionnaires are designed to enquire about some specific information that the employers might wish to know. Employers can be able to administer their company employees with these employee surveys at any time and these employee surveys are often given to employees at the time of their exit interviews. Of significant importance to note is that there happens to fundamentally be no incorrect answers on employee surveys as these surveys are not regarded to be tests and are mainly opinion based (McConnell, 2003). An effective employee survey can greatly help Jollibee Food Corporation in catalyzing, partnership with employees, motivation and communication. Attributes such as organizational vitality, morale, commitment and productivity can also be substantially improved throughout the organization by acting upon and listening to the suggestions proposed by the emp loyees. To achieve its effectiveness this survey plan of the corporation’s employees will look into some of the critical aspects of effectively administrating an employees’ survey. Some of these aspects include defining what the survey will aim to achieve, the risks and challenges that will probably be experienced in administrating the survey, the costs involved, the expected benefits as well as the measures that will be undertaken to ensure that the employees’ survey is conducted in an ethical and professional manner. Table of Contents Executive Summary 2 What The Employee Survey should be able to Achieve 5 Challenges Experienced in the Effective Administration of a Survey 5 The Risks, Costs and Potential Difficulties That can arise in the Administration of an Effective Employees Survey and the Possible Measures that can be taken to effectively manage them 7 The Expected and Possible Benefits of the Research Survey 11 Measures that will serve to ensure that the Survey is conducted in an Ethical and Professional Manner 11 Conclusion 13 Bibliography 14 What The Employee Survey should be able to Achieve The Employee survey should help employers measure some of the critical aspects of the workplace such as the general effectiveness of the organizational processes, the employee morale in the organization. Employees are able to provide relatively accurate measures of these aspects as they are directly responsible for facilitating the different operations of the organization and as a result of their being directly in the action, these employees have an accurate perception of the state of things in the organization, what needs to be improved as well as how the organization’s different processes work. After the outcomes of a survey have been collected and effectively analyzed, in order for Jollibee Food Corporation to be able to effectively reap the benefits of the data received from the survey, employers can proceed to implement a raft of organizational changes to help in the creation of more efficient and effective processes, in addition to aiding in the uplifting of the morale within

Global Perspective of a Nursing Theory Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Global Perspective of a Nursing Theory - Essay Example ry by Selye as well as Lararus writing on coping and stress are all great inspirations, which influenced the birth of the theory of systems by Neuman. It was based on many assumptions, which include that every individual client’s system is distinct and unique. There exist very many stressors, which are universal while other universally known while others are still unknown. Particular interrelationships by variables in a client determine the level of defense that a patient enjoys from a particular line of defense. Environmental factors are major influences to the evolution of the lines of defense as described previously. Lines of resistance explain the uniqueness of individual clients capacity to challenge and take defense against the stressors. Primary prevention strategies define the possible or the actual risk factors that are associated to individual client condition. The secondary factors provides the practitioner with direction to address the outcome of a particular treat ment administered to a particular client in regard to stress. The tertiary level on the other hand explains reconstitution adjustive processes to be adopted for addressing the stress and factor causes. However, bottom line to the theory is that the client system is quite dynamic and involves constant exchange of energy between the client and the environment. A client system according to this theory is the depiction of the interplay of the internal and environmental factors as variables to individual person. Selection of a Nursing theory and reasons for selection The selection of this theory for discussion in this paper has been influenced by various factors. The theory has been in application in nursing discipline in the understanding that an individual client is a person as at the bottom line... This essay approves that the systems theory as developed and used by the theorist had basic conceptual framework in management of stress for the clients, which is associated for both internal and external factors. The internal factors are the inherent factors such as the disease conditions and as such, management of the stress resultant is best addressed from the perspective of treating the disease first. On the other hand, environmental factors such as would cause the diseases are blamed on causing the stress that is externally influenced. In this regard in addition, management of the stress by practicing nurses and the clients designing and application of lines of defense that span from appreciating these causative factors. This report makes a conclusion that theorist Betty Neuman is globally acknowledged as one of the most dynamic contributors to the nursing model based theories in the nineteenth century. She developed the conceptual framework through which the particular roles of nurses and the patients are defined concerning the management of stress. She derived her inspiration from various other works of philosophy, which had the inclination to understanding stress and the management. The client is depicted as a system, which comprises of psychological, physiological, social cultural, developmental as well as spiritual dimensions. In sum, the study reveals that Newman’s work in nursing has had great impact towards the universal discipline of nursing. Having great foundation in other theorists works, the theory of stress as developed by her have undergone great evolution over time and is most celebrated in changes notable in nursing research, education and curriculum development among other ar eas.

Monday, August 26, 2019

LL1014 CRIMINAL LAW I Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words - 1

LL1014 CRIMINAL LAW I - Essay Example Both law and morals regulate human conduct in allied but essentially distinct ways. Law tells us what is right, while ethics is not so categorical and definite in its approach. The opinion was also supported by Maitland in connection to the British law(Pollock and Maitland, History of English law, vol.2). Miller defines crime â€Å" to be the commission or the omission of an act which the law forbids or commands under pain of a punishment to be imposed by the state by a proceeding in its own name†( Miller, Criminal Law, p.15 ). The basis of criminal law is that there are certain standards of behaviour of moral principles which society requires to be observed (Devlin P. 1965, The Enforcement of morals, p.6-7). Law prescribes consequences for its breach. The function of criminal law as spotlighted by the Wolfenden Committee Report (1958), is to preserve public order and decency (Berg C. 1959, Fear,Punishment,Anxiety and The Wolfenden Report). We call such consequences liabilitie s. Liability is the bond of necessity that exist between the wrong doer and the remedy of the wrong. Having gone through the definition of crime and criminal liability, it would be profitable to have a precise idea of the essential conditions which give rise to criminal liability. The general conditions of criminal liability are indicated with sufficient accuracy in the maxim â€Å"actus non facit reum nisi mens sit rea†, that is the act alone does not amount to guilt, it must be accompanied by a guilty mind. From this maxim follows another proposition: â€Å"actus me invito factus non est mens actus† which means â€Å"an act done by a person against his will is not his act at all†. â€Å" Actus reus† is such result of human conduct as the law seeks to prevent. The act done or omitted must be an act forbidden or commanded by some law. Russel calls â€Å"actus reus† as the physical result of human conduct ( Russel, Crime,vol.1,p.20).

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Case study Netflix Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Netflix - Case Study Example So the buyers force is rather neutral for Netflix. As Netflix provides home entertainment solution, the number of substitutes available to the customers is very large, starting from alternative sources of movie rentals and ending reading books or playing games instead. So the substitutes force is rather negative for Netflix. The threat of new entrants is quite strong since, with the development of new technologies, more and more companies are moving online. In addition, the Netlix’ industry is not too expensive to enter. Furthermore, the competition is already rather strong. So, in general the five-forces analysis leads to the conclusion that the competiti8ve forces confronting Netflix in the DVD rental marketplace are, in most cases, strong. 2. How is the online movie rental business changing? What are the underlying forces that are driving industry change and are their impacts favorable or unfavorable in term of their impact on competitive intensity and future industry profi tability? The online movie rental business changing due to the appearance of new technologies that allow for different ways of movie distribution. Technological advancements, therefore, are the underlying forces that are driving industry change – more and more people have access to the Internet, and more companies use new technologies to distribute their goods or services.

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Smoking Cessation Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Smoking Cessation - Research Paper Example This prediction gives a great attraction to new ventures into the industry. At the present the industry is trying to grow and overlie most of its challenges. The industry is fragmented since it is facing stiff competition from the e-cigarrete industry and many of the smokers who want to quite do prefer diet way to quit or try other ways like tablet apps. There are several players in this industry who among them are food cessation products like gums, lollipops and drinks others are tablet and phone app users and now the cessations cigarrete. Examples of these players are prescription, nicotine inhaler, nicotine-free cigarettes and hypnosis acupuncture (Bloomberg, Thomson Financial, Reuters, Dow Jones). The largest player in the market is OTC nicotine spray product. The basis of competition in the industry is the pricing in that the cessations products should be cheaper than cigarrete and another factor is taste. The product should be easy to understand and leave no bad taste in the mouth. The major trends in the industry is that the cost is going up since new cheaper sensation products get into market daily and so cost of marketing must rise to keep a player in market. Due to high competition to prove to consumers that one product is best than others a lot of fund is spend on market and product modification to suit consumers interest. Technology is also a player in that some sensation apps are being developed in smart phones and tablets and are so cheap. Another upcoming trend is the class or status of smokers. People working in office do like products which will freshen their breath and kill the craving for nicotine cigarette. Government regulations like tax implication on nicotine makes cigarrete more expensive to consumers hence smokers opt to quit and start using smoking cessations. The winners of smoking cessation brands should proactively provide healthy solutions and

Friday, August 23, 2019

Analysis of Context and Critical Evaluation Essay

Analysis of Context and Critical Evaluation - Essay Example This makes it easy for an organization like Ford to adapt easily to meet evolving needs. The eternal environment of an organization contains social and economic conditions which play a crucial role in the process of decision making by the executive. These factors must be incorporated with the requirements of the stakeholders which are often inconsistent. Execution of decision in top organizations requires a broad approach and skills. Strategic management cannot be separated from organizational success. Introduction Strategic management refers to decisions and actions that aim at formulation and execution of initiatives in order to achieve the objectives of the corporation. Henry Ford founded the company in 1903 in Michigan, USA. The company pioneered in the use of the moving assembly line. The company had a market share of 50 percent. In 1956, the company went public. This was greatly influenced by the company’s growth coupled with a significant presence in the automotive mark et around the world. However, the company has not been doing well for the last one decade. This has been contributed by a product portfolio that is below par. Allan Mullaly became the chief executive in the year 2006. The company was functioning as detached entities in the United States, Australia, Europe and other regions. The move impacted the company negatively because of the huge operational expenses incurred. Reports indicate that the cost of developing a single vehicle from the scratch was approximately $800 (Ford 2012). The new top executive was duty bound to come up with strategies that were cost effective and profitable to the running of the organization. The new organizational leadership was compelled to come with strategies that would make the company globally competitive. Mullaly altered the structure of Ford’s management structure. This included transforming the company’s operations from regional ineffective company branches to an integrated globally compe titive organization. The company came up with the one-ford initiative whose aim was to reduce time spent in duplication and focus in high quality products instead. The new organizational strategy intended to make the Ford company products high quality and appealing to the global market. Ford’s business strategy focused on how to make a broad and sustainable strategy in order to remain competitive (Hoffman 2013). The rise in fuel prices and green technologies had called for a change of strategy in the motor vehicle industry. Ford Company decided to invest in development of affordable vehicles in the face of an organizational crisis that amounted to debt (Hoffman 2013). The company decided to break from using few important products to multiple affordable and accessible products. Ford was able to establish that most of the loyal customers across the world wanted safety, reliable brands and after sales service for customers (Hoffman 2013). Ford Company differentiated itself from other companies by investing in R & D. features like my-ford-touch and sync were only affordable in expensive vehicles. Ford Company has made products affordable to common man. The strategy has made a difference as the company has increased motor vehicle sales. The Ford used the One-ford strategy to simplify the brand structure. This caused the Ford strategic team to have to sell Land Rover, and Jaguar at most of the Mazda ownership. This reinvented the original Ford brand which had a high reputation when it came to safety,

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Comparison of The Raven and The Erlking Essay Example for Free

Comparison of The Raven and The Erlking Essay In this essay, I am going to compare and contrast the two famous poems, The Raven by Edgar Allen Poe and The Erlking by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. The Raven is a one hundred and eight line poem about a lonely man who is unstable after losing his wife and comes across a raven who only speaks the word, nevermore. The Erlking is a poem about a man in a small girls nightmare as he torments her but nobody else can see him. There are many similarities and differences between the two poems. Both poems have a gothic atmosphere and can be compared strongly in this way. However, both are of different lengths and differ fro9m each other. In this essay, I am going to discuss how the two poets create tension and suspense and make a conclusion after studying these poems. The first element I am going to compare and contrast is the storyline of the poem and the impression it is meant to have on its reader. I am going to start by analysing each poem individually and then make a small conclusion when I will see how they are similar and how they differ. I will be using this structure for each point I will discuss. I will start by analysing The Raven. The main principle of Edgar Allen Poes poem was to have a lasting effect on its reader. Shortly, before he wrote The Raven, Poes wife had been diagnosed with an illness. This illness was later the cause of her death soon after he had finalised is poem. It is said that this poem is his forecast of what was going to happen to his wife. This is, therefore, the reason why he chose a raven to be the main character, because it was thought to be the most evil bird. The Raven is meant to be a representation of Edgar Allen Poe reflecting his responses to the bad news of his wife. The Erlking is a very dark poem and starts by giving a notion that the boy is simply imagining the Erlking and is dying of a strange disease. However, the poem takes a sinister twist when the boy dies at the end of the poem. Goethe had many reasons of writing such a dark poem. Such a reason is that the night before he wrote the poem he saw a local farmer carrying a bundle. This turned out to be a man who was carrying his sick child to hospital. This was where the main inspiration for the storyline for the poem of the Erlking came from. Also in German mythology there is meant to be a spirit/ supernatural power that is meant to cause controversy and ruin the minds of children. These two factors were merged together to make the Erlking. They are both dark poems and want to create a mysterious mood for the reader. Both had an individual reason of why they were written but then their similarity grew because they had the same atmospheric impression. The second point I am going to examine is the linguistic techniques used by the poets. The Raven has a lot of alliteration and is used very frequently. Examples of this alliteration is:- While I nodded, nearly napping, suddenly there came a tapping, And the silken, sad, uncertain rustling of each purple curtain Both are examples of alliteration but in different ways, one very simple and the other has more complexity. The first quote is just three consecutive words starting with the same letter. The second quotation, on the other hand, uses two words consecutively starting with the same letter. However, the third word is part of the alliteration. The un is not part of the alliteration but the second part is. Although this part of the word starts with a c, it is pronounced as the letter s. This is still part of the alliteration because this poem was obviously written to be read aloud. The Erlking is very different to the Raven, in this way, as it does not contain hardly any alliteration used for boosting the atmosphere. The Erlking does use a linguistic technique that the Raven does not use as much is repetition. An example of this is:- Dear father, oh father, and do you not see, This is a technique very similar to alliteration as it created the same type of tension and both are meant to be read fairly slowly. Later on in The Erlking, this repetition phrase is repeated, showing that there is internal repetition (with the word father) and also phrasal repetition. The third I am going to consider is the rhyming scheme of each of the poems. The Erlking has a different rhyming scheme to the Raven. The Erlkings rhyming scheme is a very common one but the one of the Raven is very peculiar. Many poems have the rhyming scheme the same as the Erlking because it is very basic. This rhyming scheme is:- 1. A 2. A 3. B 4. C An example of this rhyming scheme in the poem is:- 1. Who rides so late where winds blow wild? 2. It is the father grasping his child; 3. He holds the boy embraced in his arm 4. He clasps him snugly, he keeps him warm. The rhyming scheme of the Raven is very different and unusual, not many poems have the same rhyming scheme. This rhyming scheme is:- 1. AA 2. B 3. CC 4. CB 5. B 6. B An example of this rhyming scheme is:- 1. Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered, weak and weary, 2. Over many a quaint and curious volume of forgotten lore- 3. While I nodded, nearly napping, suddenly there came a tapping, 4. As of someone gently rapping, rapping at my chamber door- 5. Tis some visitor, I muttered, tapping at my chamber door. 6. Only this and nothing more. The two poems differ greatly in their rhyming schemes and have similarities. The Erlking has a very simple rhyming scheme with only two lines that rhyme out of the four. However, the Raven has a much more complex rhyming scheme with internal rhymes as well as end-of-line rhyming. The Ravens rhyme scheme, however, has an effect on how the poem is read. The Raven is a very gothic poem and this rhyme scheme changes the way the poem is read, especially when the enunciation is used. The Erlking is very different and is a lot easier to read, compared with the Raven. This could mean that the poem is meant for a younger audience because of the simplistic reading ability needed. The other issue I am going to study is the excess of patterning. The Raven uses this several times, however, the Erlking does not. Excess of patterning is when a sound is repeated in a line to give an emphasis of those particular words. An example of this in the Raven could be:- Open here I flung the shutter, when, with many a flirt and flutter, This quotation from Poes poem gives emphasis on the description to make this highlighted when the poem is read. This could have been a good technique that could have been added to the Erlking poem to make a part of the poem more prominent. The final factor I am going to consider is the length of the poems. The Raven is considerably longer than the Erlking. The Raven being 108 lines long compared to the Erlking which is a mere 32 lines long. The length of the Raven allows Poe to go into a lot of depth in his descriptions. However, this style of writing does not suit the Erlking as well. The reason for this is that the Erlking is meant to leave questions unanswered and a sense of mystery. If it had gone into the depth that the Raven did in its length, this would have been taken away. Over all, I can see that both poems are very individual but still contain some similarities. Both poets had very different inspirations of why they wrote their poem but they still had a very similar atmosphere that was created. They also use different linguistic techniques, although they create a very parallel effect. I can see that Edgar Allen Poe uses many more techniques in his poem than Goethe does, this may be because the Raven is longer and may have more room to use more effect without over-doing them.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

U.S. and Educational Empowerment Essay Example for Free

U.S. and Educational Empowerment Essay With the increasing challenges and complexities the world universities are faced with a number of issues. However, the universities of the U. S. confront these issues in a graver manner. With globalization has come the ease of movement across nations of students, intellectual property, faculty members, and educational services; as such, according to Ruby (2005) , universities and especially of U. S. face major challenges which are as follows: 6. 1. 3. 1) Growing Global Demand The demand for higher education internationally will grow dramatically. It is estimated that in 2025 the number of students would reach to 263 million students as compared to 97 million in 2000. 400% more students will leave for abroad for higher education. Here the U. S. universities will see great competition on the international front and need to work in the smooth lines so that empowerment of future talent in globalized environment becomes a reality because such areas as culture of universities, size, teaching excellence, quality and so on would be at critical ends. 6. 1. 3. 2) Diverse Students The number of students would grow not only in quantity but also in diversity which would itself be a critical area in need of tactical handling for the U. S. to tackle. 6. 1. 3. 3) Private Sector’s Involvement In provision of education, the governments of many industrialized countries are now joining hands with the private sector so that expansion of educational institutions can be rightly observed; however, this is another area of debate which seems to rise globally in the coming times. For instance, research, quality of education, elasticity in the market, government monitoring, students finance, etc. are some issues being debated now. But these will appear to be complex in the more globalized times of the future. 6. 1. 3. 4) Delivery with Diversification Today, new technologies like tapes, video streaming, Internet provide students with ample liberty of where to learn. Distance learning is becoming more and more common. However, the handling of this area is critical as the number of students rises. Moreover, the delivery with diversification will need to be incorporated in education to empower the growing demands of global youth. 6. 1. 3. 5) Learning and Research There are a wide spectrum of question in relation to research, learning and globalization both in private and public sectors universities. For instance, rapidly changing social scenario has generated a lot of content that needs to be investigated for future incorporation in order to enhance learning. Moreover, changing demands for careers, new areas of knowledge and so on, raise thorny question as how research and learning will be incorporated in the complex air of globalization . With these issues at hand, the need to expand expertise, both technical and social, is the current area that can assure better empowerment of present and current generation. By meeting these challenges not only the U. S. universities but universities all over the world can make it a possibility to quip youth with required tools so the complexities of globalization are changed into fruitful gains for humanity on the whole. I would like to raise one point that the developing world seems to be struggling in the area of educational change in globalization. I have strong conviction, after going through all the discourse, that unless the developing world realizes the importance of education diversity and works for the empowerment of its youth, the brain drain, and hunt for talent would still be there. 7- Corporate Sector and Empowerment of Talent Now coming to the corporate world, the situation is all the more complex and great activity is being observed in the whole corporate world relative of globalization. Corporate world is an area where demands and requirements are different from governments because it has different ends to meet: generation of profit, to sum up. However, the concept of globalization has been welcomed by this fraction of the world internationally, yet the challenges are far and varied. According to Terry (2002), in the corporate world the meaning of globalization is crossing of technical, cultural, and financial boundaries causing international flow of goods, services, and information becomes possible. Henceforth, the corporate world also foresees the challenges and opportunities being carried by this wave. The biggest challenge present now and would continue to linger in the future is the lack of managerial staff and adapted training of managerial staff and professionals in other areas. As such training and development of human capital is something the entire corporate world is focusing on. In this context, needs of companies are changing. Today, companies are expanding worldwide and the customer is global customer. Additionally, competition of customization of product to meet individual consumers’ needs is another added complexity. All this needs staff that is sufficient in number and is equipped with enough capacity and skill to join in the production line. Education, in-house training, use of technologies, and development of human capital is all the companies regard as empowerment of their present and future talent. There is another concept that has taken roots in at the managerial level. This is the fresh concept of global leadership. This, according to Bill Gardner, director of corporate expansion and elevation for Advanced Micro Devices, is when managers can work in any unit of their parent company, anywhere in the world. This concept has sparked new lights of innovation and diversity in the corporate world. However, one point is also clear that this need is natural because according to a VP of a pharmaceutical company there are only a few people who are capable of dealing with our biggest problems which have been born out of the complexities of globalization. Hence, hunt for these people is not easy. What is required is the availability of these people at any cost and at any terms and condition. For this purpose any measures that are necessary would be taken. Moreover, it is highly imperative that through extensive training and development such talent is produced locally to meet the upcoming challenges. In a nutshell, then, empowerment of talent is possible via the road of development which must be up to the standards of present and future trends of international market . Moreover, intellectuals, the finest talent of the world, are now seen as one social group who are considered responsible for the solution of the entire world on the whole. As such empowerment of talent is now the issue of the whole globe as a community rather as fragments of countries and groups.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Organisatonal Learning Research Project

Organisatonal Learning Research Project 1.1 Organisational Learning This section determines if records about product, services and project are being kept for future references in the present system and the expectations of a future system. Question 38: Provides Information for Project Debriefing and Follow-Up This question identifies if the present system provides information for project debriefing and follow-up in comparison to the future system. Availability of information for project debriefing and follow up shows that reference is made to past activities or occurrences to avoid making the same mistake. Thus it indicates if there is an organisational learning tendency. The present system does not seem to adequately provide information for project debriefing and follow-up with 54% that agree (41% agree and 14% strongly agree) and 35% that disagree (30% disagree and 5% strongly disagree) with the statement. In contrast, 97% consider (51% agree and 46% strongly agree) that the future system will provide information for project debriefing and follow-up. Figure 4‑45: Provides Information for Project Debriefing and Follow-Up Question 39: Promotes a Knowledge Sharing Environment in the Organisation This question indicates if there is a knowledge sharing environment in the present system in comparison to the aspiration of the future system. There is a clear distinction from knowledge share and information sharing. This shows that employees are not only willing to share information but also their knowledge for the benefit of customers and the organisation. This portrays if the organisation is open in its approach and culture. The figures show that 51% agree (41% agree and 14% strongly agree) that the present system promotes a knowledge sharing environment in the organisation. This is the lowest rating for the present system in this section showing a lack of knowledge sharing. On the other hand 90% believe (41% agree and 14% strongly agree) that the future system will promote a knowledge sharing environment in the organisation. Silo-based organisational myopia must be replaced with a customer-focus one so that departments will collaborate rather than compete with each other. A customer-centric model requires sharing the data throughout the enterprise; this usually requires a fundamental paradigm shift in the culture to sharing information and knowledge. Many of these changes efforts can be aided by effective communication throughout the entire project and targeting and reaching all levels of employees. (Injazz J. Chen and Karen Popovich, 2003)(Refer Literature Review, Pg. 29, Paragraph 3). Figure 4‑46: Promotes a Knowledge Sharing Environment in the Organisation Question 40: Provides Technical Details of Products Services This question asks respondent if the present system provides technical details on product and services in comparison to the future system. This shows that if an employee or a manager is not aware of a particular specification, is he/she willing to go on the system and find out about the technical information. The results show that 60% agree with the statement (41% agree and 19% strongly agree) that the present system provides technical details of products and services. In comparison, 95% agree (54% agree and 41% strongly agree) that the future system will provide technical details of products and services. It was noted that no respondents disagreed with the statement that the future system will provide technical details of products and services. Figure 4‑47: Provides Technical Details of Products Services Question 41: Learn from Past Resolved Issues This question compares the present system and the aspiration of the future system, in term of referring to past resolved issues to solve problems that the firm is currently encountering. Only 53% (28% agree and 25% strongly agree) of respondents agree that the present system helps them to learn from past resolved issues and 28% disagree with the statement (19% disagree and 8% strongly disagree). On the other hand, 92% agree (35% agree and 57% strongly agree) that the future system will help them learn from past resolved issues. Figure 4‑48: Learn from Past Resolved Issues Question 42: Learning New Methods is Essential for Success This question basically checks if the present system promotes learning new methods for success in comparison to the aspirations of the future system. This in turn identifies if respondents are willing to learn. The figure indicates that 61% agree (31% agree and 31% strongly agree) that with the present system, learning new methods is essential for success. Yet, 92% agree (30% agree and 62% strongly agree) that the future system will provide opportunities for learning new methods which is essential for success. From the literature review, Laudon Laudon (2004) highlight that organisational learning in support of change requires the acquisition of complex knowledge of new business rules and processes and the ‘unlearning’ of the previous ones. This question tests if learning new methods is essential for success indicating that respondents understand the importance of learning. ) (Refer Literature Review, Pg. 30, Paragraph 3). Figure 4‑49: Learning New Methods is Essential for Success It has to be highlighted, that 35% disagree that the present system provides information for project debriefing and follow-up and only 51% agree that the present system promotes a knowledge sharing environment. The highest rating for the present system is 61% that agree that learning new methods is essential for success. It has to be noted that all the ratings for the future system in this section is above 80% with the lowest rating 89% for promoting a knowledge sharing environment in the organisation. This evidently shows that employees understand the significance of a knowledge sharing environment. Embracing a CRM business strategy requires more than the development of a mission statement, it requires employees to acknowledge it, believe it, and understand how the strategy will change the way they do their jobs. Within Royal Bank, the training of employees to deliver a true customer-focused business strategy is acknowledged to be the most critical aspect of the CRM implementation (Kathleen Khirallah, 2001). regards employee learning as an investment, essential to sustainably address customer problems and satisfy customer demands. (Hsin Hsin Chang, 2007). MOCOTO Bank believes that, given the competitive nature of the finance industry, and its high degree of IT dependence and innovation, continuous employee learning is an essential investment. Question 43: We believe that the Implementation of CRM is This question determines if the respondent understand the importance of a CRM in their daily task. From the survey 94% consider (26% important and 68%% very important) that the implementation of CRM is important, with only 6% neutral. No respondents disagree with the statement. The Literature review also highlights that, CRM does much more than just track customer interactions. It also helps organisations optimize their operations by automating routine tasks and standardizing best practices. Ultimately, CRM allows organisations to better acquire, manage, serve, and extract value from their customers while improving operational efficiency something that is critical in today’s economy (Microsoft Dynamics, White Paper, 2009) (Literature Review, Pg. 9 Paragraph 3). Figure 4‑50: We believe that the Implementation of CRM is CRM does much more than just track customer interactions. It also helps organisations optimize their operations by automating routine tasks and standardizing best practices. Ultimately, CRM allows organisations to better acquire, manage, serve, and extract value from their customers while improving operational efficiency something that is critical in today’s economy (Microsoft Dynamics, White Paper, 2009) (Literature Review, Pg. 9 Paragraph 3). Open ended questions are used to obtain more insight into the problems of organisations and the recommendations that respondents would like to propose. Question 44: What are the main difficulties in carrying out your responsibility in your department? Table 4‑1: What are the main difficulties in carrying out your responsibility in your department? It is noted that the problems are three folds, either strategic, system related or employee related. Strategic issues that were pertinent were: lack of information, information needed for decision making, proper management of information, issues with planning, cooperation, coordination and the process itself. Other concerns were that the system was slow, need for training regarding communication channels, lack of communication channels, planning issues. The present system is not user friendly with no proper graphical user interface and limited functionality. It does not track customer complaints effectively moreover respondents have difficulty in following up issues in a timely manner (time and resource management). The system is also complicated with too many passwords to remember. On the human aspect, some consider that there is too much work load, follow-up of employees is tedious, the need for implementation of a systematic and coherent culture throughout a large organisation. It has noted that respondents have difficulties in managing customer attitude and perception. There tends to be limited resources and human approach – indicating organisational culture issues. Issues with managing people, low team spirit, lack of training. The difficulties enumerated demonstrates that strategic, system and employee related issues impact on the efficiency of the organisation and should be considered when implementing the CRM system. Question 45: Any Recommendation you wish to propose Table 4‑2: Any Recommendation you wish to propose Likewise the recommendation also tends to be in three folds: strategic, system and employee related. There is a need for a tool that can bring efficiency in back office while ensuring visibility on overall operations. In addition there is a necessity for inter department meetings and regular meetings – basically a more reinforced communication and collaboration between departments. Equally important is proper planning, training and support to achieve business objectives. Respondents expect the new system to provide flexibility while doing several tasks at the same time. It is evident that an upgraded system is required which will necessitate training. It requested that the system is designed as per respondents’ requirements. Essentially the system should enable respondents to manage several tasks at the same time. The new system is also expected to enhance quality output for any task assigned, linking time sheets, complaints, warranty, maintenance scheduling, blacklisted clients in other departments, claim back up among others. In addition the CRM should be updated daily – which should be a prerequisite. There is a need for a proper and organised procedure to manage and distribute information and follow-up issues in a timely manner. Employee related issues entail the need for regular follow-up and employee initiative, concerns about the hierarchy, and the need for training As seen above the recommendations are three folds where the system is a major limitation, hampering strategic progress and creating frustration due to an out-dated system which is no longer aligned to the actual requirements of the organisation. In turn the present system does not facilitate strategic analysis and is concerned mainly to facilitate operations.

Hamlet :: essays research papers

Hamlet The Modern ntinued to fall as it had for the past week. Hayden was trying to figure out what had happen in the past six months. The lost of his father, the gain of a stepfather, it all puzzled him.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã¢â‚¬Å"How can all of this happen in such short amount of time? She didn’t even wait a month after my father’s death to get married, to his brother at that.† Hayden stared out the widow at the rain from his desk.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  A sight breeze blew past him, Hayden turned around to see where it came from. He was faced with his father. Hayden was speechless. The spirit gently touched his left shoulder then spoke. â€Å"Hayden, my death was not an accident. Your uncle set up the plane crash, so he could have it all.†   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã¢â‚¬Å"But what can I do? Hayden managed to mutter.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã¢â‚¬Å"I need you to stop Claude from ruining anymore lives, including yours.†   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Before Hayden reacted, the room was empty again.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Suddenly a knocking came from his oak door. Hayden stood up, walked across the room to the door and opened it. It was Harry, Hayden’s best friend. He told Harry everything that just happened. They decided that taking Claude’s life would be the best plan.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã¢â‚¬Å"But, Lorne, I dunno if Hayden still wants to be with me. He says he cares for me, but he just doesn’t show his affection.† Olivia stated as she looked into her mirror and slowly brushed her silky blonde hair.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Lorne slowly walked up to Olivia, gently place his right hand on her left shoulder, and then said, â€Å"Livie, I have nothing against Hayden Christiansen, but I just dunno if he’s the right person for you.†   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã¢â‚¬Å"Why is that?† Olivia was puzzled.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã¢â‚¬Å"I get a bad vibe from him.†   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Well, last week, I was walking down the hall and I saw Hayden, so, naturally I stopped and said hi. But he just kept on walking. He completely ignored me. â€Å"Olivia said with an upset tone. â€Å"I just wanted to cry.†   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã¢â‚¬Å"I just don’t know about him.† Lorne looked at his watch, then continued. â€Å"I have to go.†   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Olivia turned, looked at Lorne, and questioned. â€Å"You’re leaving already? But you just came home last night.†   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã¢â‚¬Å"I know, I’m sorry. But this time I won’t be got as long this time.†   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã¢â‚¬Å"Promise?†   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã¢â‚¬Å"Promise!†   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Olivia sighed then said, â€Å"Okay.†   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã¢â‚¬Å"But remember if he makes you cry, he’s just not worth it.†   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã¢â‚¬Å"Alright.† Olivia replied then kissed Lorne on his pale lips.

Monday, August 19, 2019

In The Fruit at the Bottom of the Bowl by Ray Bradbury and The Tell :: English Literature

In The Fruit at the Bottom of the Bowl by Ray Bradbury and The Tell Tale Heart by Edgar Allen Poe both authors have to convince the reader that the main character is mad. How do they do that? Which portrayal is more effective? Why? This essay will explore which madman is portrayed the best. Both stories deal with an obsession and a madness of some sort. In ' The Fruit at the Bottom of the Bowl' by Ray Bradbury the main character is William Action who frantically cleans trying to cover up the murder. Not knowing he is going mad. In ' The Tell Tale Heart' the man has an obsession with his masters eye, which drives him mad but he does not believe himself that he is mad. In 'The Tell Tale Heart' the characters motive is his masters "vulture's eye" which is shown by saying " I think it was his eye! Yes, it was this! Also when he says " One of his eyes resembled that of a vulture. In 'The Fruit at the Bottom of the Bowl" the characters motive is that his wife is having an affair this is shown by the character saying, " Where's my wife, Huxley? " and " I need one. I can't believe Lily's gone that she-". The first characters motive suggests madness because why would you want to kill a man just because of his eye. The second one stands to reason because if you find out your wife was having an affair the first thing you would want to do is kill the other person In ' The Tell Tale Heart' the narration is first person, so that the readers can put themselves there, the character addresses them directly, It also give you an insight into the characters most inner thoughts and feelings. In ' Fruit at the Bottom of the Bowl ' the narration is third person with stream of consciousness. This allows you to feel as thought you are watching the events unfold and that you become omnipotent. The narration method of ' The Tell Tale Heart' is more effective and convinces the reader of the main characters madness because you can tell the characters most inner thoughts and feelings as he addresses you unlike ' Fruit at the Bottom of the Bowl ' which only shows you the actions and doesn't give you an insight to his mental well being. In 'Fruit at the Bottom of the Bowl ' the characters attitude to the dead body and crime is one of calmness, although he was still conscious that his actions could be traced via his fingertips on the

Sunday, August 18, 2019

The Ever Changing Concept of Health Essay -- Health & Wellness

With the dominance of medicine over the past two hundred years many historical health concepts have gone through various changes. The definition of health is dependent on one’s perspective, be it lay, professional or from influences of specific cultures or social ideals and health policies of a particular time or place (Fleming & Parker 2012, p.30, Naidoo & Wills 2000). An exploration through history will reflect on the health philosophies of the ancient Greeks and Romans, the Middle Age’s concept of quarantine and isolation and the religious theories of disease including a brief insight into the renaissance. Subsequently, a discussion of health concepts of the past two centuries including 19th century sanitary reform, the dominance in the 20th century of the medical model of health care. This paper will look at the shift away from the medical model and the 21st century concept of health promotion and multidisciplinary care, using allied health professionals. I will argue that attention to the achievements and failures of the historical concepts of health, equips allied health professionals with an opportunity to objectively decide which of these practices have relevance or are useful in developing new approaches for positive health outcomes. In ancient times religion and science were tied in together when it came to health and everyday living. The ruins throughout Greece and Italy stand as testament to their ingenuity with creating and building infrastructure, but also of the people’s belief in the power and influence of the ancient Gods to heal illness (Krieger 2012, p.47, Hays 1998, p.9). According to Tountas (2009) the ancient Greeks were the first to break with mystical notions of health re-orienting ‘medicine toward a ... ...model of illness categories’ in GL, Albrecht, R, Fitzpatrick, SC, Scrimshaw (ed). 2003, The handbook of social studies of health and medicine, pp. 9-23, Sage publications, London, available at Veith, I 1980, ‘Changing concepts of health care: An historian's View’ Western Journal Medicine, vol.133, no.6, pp.532-538 Vlahov, D, Gibble, E, Freudenberg, N & Galea, S 2004, ‘Cities and Health: history, Approaches, Academic medicine, vol.79, no.12 World Health Organization (WHO) 1986, The Ottawa charter for health promotion, Ottawa: Canadian Public Health Association. Yuil, C 2002, ‘Concepts of health and medicine’ in Barry, A and Yuil, C 2008, Understanding the sociology of health: an introduction 2nd ed, pp.22-33, Sage publications Ltd, London, available at

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Discuss the discovery of the structure of Benzene

Benzene is a chemical compound of the hydro-carbon group. It is a colorless liquid with a characteristic odor and burning taste, formula C6H6. The benzene molecule is a closed ring of six carbon atoms connected by bonds that resonate between single and double bonds; each carbon atom is also bound to a single hydrogen atom. It is insoluble in water, but miscible in all proportions with organic solvents. Benzene itself is an excellent solvent for certain elements, such as sulphur, phosphorus, and iodine; for gums, fats, waxes, and resins; and for most simple organic chemicals.It is one of the most commonly used solvents in the organic chemical laboratory. Benzene melts at 5. 5 ° C (41. 9 ° F), boils at 80. 1 ° C (176. 2 ° F), and has a relative density of 0. 88 at 20 ° C (68 ° F). It is widely regarded as carcinogenic and, if inhaled in large quantities, is poisonous. The vapors are explosive, and the liquid violently flammable. Many compounds, such as nitrobenzene, are obt ained from benzene. Benzene is also used in the manufacture of drugs and in the production of important derivatives, such as aniline and phenol (see Hogben, Lancelot.Science for the Citizen: A Self-Educator Based on the Social Background of Scientific Discovery, 1999). Benzene and its derivatives are included in the important chemical group known as aromatic compounds. II. Discussion Benzene is only slightly soluble in water, but can be mixed in all proportions with acetone, alcohol, ether, or glacial acetic acid. It burns with a smoky flame. The vapor forms an explosive mixture with air, and has been used in parts of the world as a motor fuel.At one time, most benzene was obtained from tars and gases produced during the making of coke for the iron and steel industry. Now, however, much of the world’s supply of benzene is obtained by the refining of petroleum. Moreover, the benzene molecule is believed to be shaped like a ring, rather than like a cube or a chain as are other hydrocarbon molecules. The theory of the benzene ring is an important principle in organic chemistry. The aromatic series of hydrocarbons are compounds containing benzene ring.The theory of the structure of the benzene molecule was first stated by the German chemist August Kekuke in 1865. He suggested that the six carbon atoms of benzene were arranged in a hexagonal ring, with each of the six hydrogen atoms attached to one of the carbon atoms. Since each carbon atom has a valence of 4, alternate carbon atoms share two valence bonds in the benzene ring (see Aftalion, Fred and Benfey,Otto Theodor. A History of the International Chemical Industry, 2000).Pure benzene burns with a smoky flame because of its high carbon content. When mixed with a large proportion of petrol it makes a satisfactory fuel. In Europe benzene mixed with some methylbenzene and other related compounds has long been added to motor fuels. The wisdom of this in the face of benzene's carcinogenic qualities has only r ecently been addressed as a concern. Benzene was discovered in 1825 by the English scientist Michael Faraday, and in 1842 it was made available in large quantities after it was found that coal tar contains benzene.A ton of coal, if coked in a by-product oven, yields about 7. 6 liters (2 gallons) of benzene (see Audrieth, Ludwig Frederick. Salts, Acids, and Bases: Electrolytes Stereochemistry, 2001). Large quantities of benzene are now obtained from petroleum, either by direct extraction from certain types of crude oils or by chemical treatment of petroleum (hydroforming and cyclization). III. Conclusion The structure of the benzene molecule is of the utmost importance to the theory of organic chemistry.The first to formulate the resonating ring structure described above was the German chemist Friedrich August Kekulà © von Stradonitz, in 1865. For various reasons, 20th-century theorists found difficulties with this picture and instead developed a â€Å"molecular orbital† pict ure of electrons orbiting the entire molecule rather than particular carbon atoms. In the 1980s, however, more advanced studies returned to Kekulà ©'s picture, but with the electrons in deformed orbits around their particular atoms.

Friday, August 16, 2019

Harbor Chemicals

Assignment 5 Sheet Harbour Chemicals Sheet Harbour Chemicals (SHC) manufactures chemicals used in the paint industry. The process involves three departments. Chemical A, which is purchased for $3 per liter, is processed through Department 1 in batches of 100 liters. Each batch of chemicals processed through Department A produces 70 liters of chemical B and 30 liters of chemical C. Chemical B is sold for $10 per liter. Chemical C is used in Department 2 to produce chemicals D, E, and F. Department 2 processes chemical C in batches of 200 liters.Each batch processed through Department B produces 100 liters of chemical D, 60 liters of chemical E, and 40 liters of chemical F. Chemical D is sold for $12 per liter. Chemical E is a waste product that is donated to the local municipality to be spread on gravel roads to keep down dust. Chemical F is a hazardous waste product that must be disposed of at a cost of $6 per liter. Alternatively, chemical F can be processed through Department 3 to produce chemical C. Department 3 processes chemical F in batches of 40 liters.For each batch of chemical F processed, 20 liters of chemical C are produced. In the past, this operation has had a tendency to build up stocks of chemical C. The maximum storage capactiy for chemical C is 1,000 liters. The accompanying diagram summarizes the production activities at SHC. The sales manager indicates that sales of chemical B cannot exceed 35,000 liters in the upcoming period, and sales of chemical D cannot exceed 10,000 liters. The production manager advises that 7,000 labor-hours are available for the upcoming period. Workers are paid $10 per hour worked.The production manager indicates that the labor-hours required for each batch in Departments 1,2, and 3 are 10, 15, and 10, respectively. Moreoever, because of constraints relating to the mixing vats and storage, the maximum number of batches in Departments 1, 2, and 3 are 600, 80, and 40, respectively. The estimated variable overhead cost s per batch in Departments 1, 2, and 3 are estimated as $250, $750, and $100. 2 Required: 1. Formulate an LP to determine the optimal production plan at SHC for the upcoming period. 2. Using Excel, solve the LP formulated in requirement 1 to determine the optimal plan.

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

Introduction The process of urination is vital to the body for the removal of certain waste products. Normally, when the bladder gets full, urine is emptied from the body through the urethra in a process called urination. In urinary retention, a person’s bladder fills up and there is an urge to urinate but he is unable to completely empty his bladder. With chronic urinary retention, a person may be able to urinate, but he has some trouble starting a stream or emptying your bladder completely. He may urinate frequently, may feel an urgent need to urinate but have little success when he gets to the toilet; or he may feel he still have to go after having finished urinating. With acute urinary retention, he can't urinate at all even though he has a full bladder. Acute urinary retention is a medical emergency requiring prompt action. Acute urinary retention (AUR) is an extremely uncomfortable and potentially life-threatening condition characterized by a sudden inability to urinate associated with intense suprapubic discomfort. It is most often secondary to obstruction, but may also be related to trauma, medication, neurologic disease, infection, and occasionally psychological issues. Acute urinary retention (AUR) is one of the most significant, uncomfortable and inconvenient event in the natural history of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). BPH is the virtual universal overgrowth of the prostate gland in men as they age. Various factors affecting BPH are age, genetic makeup, testosterone levels, and environment. As the prostate enlarges it compresses the urethra causing obstruction to urine flow. The urinary stream becomes smaller; there may be difficulty in initiating the stream, dribbling, and intermittent flow, frequency of urination, getting up at night to void (nocturia), inability to empty, or even inability to void at all (retention). Patient’s Profile Name: c Age: 69 Address: Civil Status: Married Chief Complaint: Difficulty in urinating ptc and bloody urine few days ptc Tentative Diagnosis: Acute urinary retention prob. Secondary to BPH History of Present Illness a. Present History Patient is 69 years old male retiree, a resident of PS Tagas, Tabaco City admitted at BRTTH with a chief complaint of dysuria. One week prior to consultation he had difficulty in urinating and presence of blood in the urine b. Medical History The patient claimed that he has hypertension and diabetes mellitus type II. Anatomy and Physiology Prostate gland The prostate is a walnut-sized gland that forms part of the male reproductive system. The gland is made of two lobes, or regions, enclosed by an outer layer of tissue. As the diagrams show, the prostate is located in front of the rectum and just below the bladder, where urine is stored. The prostate also surrounds the urethra, the canal through which urine passes out of the body. Scientists do not know all the prostate's functions. One of its main roles, though, is to squeeze fluid into the urethra as sperm move through during sexual climax. This fluid, which helps make up semen, energizes the sperm and makes the vaginal canal less acidic. Urinary Bladder The urinary bladder is a muscular sac for storing urine. The triangular base of the bladder, the trigone, is defined by the two ureters that deliver the urine and the one urethra that drains the urine. When empty, the bladder collapses, and folds (called rugae) from in the bladder wall. As it fills, the folds become distended and the bladder  becomes spherical. The wall of the bladder consists of three layers similar to those of  the urethra: the mucosa, the muscularis (here called the detrusor muscle), and the adventitia. Circular smooth muscle fibers around the urethra form the internal urethral sphincter. As a man matures, the prostate goes through two main periods of growth. The first occurs early in puberty, when the prostate doubles in size. At around age 25, the gland begins to grow again. This second growth phase often results, years later, in BPH. Though the prostate continues to grow during most of a man's life, the enlargement doesn't usually cause problems until late in life. BPH rarely causes symptoms before age 40, but more than half of men in their sixties and as many as 90 percent in their  seventies and eighties have some symptoms of BPH. As the prostate enlarges, the layer of tissue surrounding it stops it from expanding, causing the gland to press against the urethra like a clamp on a garden hose. The bladder wall becomes thicker and irritable. The bladder begins to contract even when it contains small amounts of urine, causing more frequent urination. Eventually, the bladder weakens and loses the ability to empty itself. Urine remains in the bladder. The narrowing of the urethra and partial emptying of the bladder cause many of the problems associated with BPH. Pathophysiology Urinary retention can be caused by an obstruction in the urinary tract or by nerve problems that interfere with signals between the brain and the bladder. If the nerves aren't working properly, the brain may not get the message that the bladder is full. Even if you know that your bladder is full, the bladder muscle that squeezes urine out may not get the signal that it is time to push, or the sphincter muscles may not get the signal that it is time to relax. A weak bladder muscle can also cause retention. As a man ages, his prostate gland may enlarge. Doctors call the condition benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), or benign prostatic hypertrophy. As the prostate enlarges, the layer of tissue surrounding it stops it from expanding, causing the gland to press against the urethra like a clamp on a garden hose. As a result, the bladder wall becomes thicker and irritable. The bladder begins to contract even when it contains small amounts of urine, causing more frequent urination. Eventually, the bladder weakens and loses the ability to empty itself, so urine remains in the bladder. The pathophysiology of bladder outlet obstruction in men with BPH has been attributed to both static and dynamic factors. The static obstruction is due to the bulk enlargement of the prostate encroaching upon the prostatic urethra and bladder outlet, whereas the dynamic obstruction is related to the tension of prostate smooth muscle. Diagnostic Evaluation and Lab Examination a. Ultrasound of whole abdomen * Normal * Gassy epigastria, gassy filled bowel loops * Empty bladder b. CBC WBC| 8. 1| RBC| 4. 16| Hemoglobin| 103| Hematocrit| 0. 31| Platelet| 273| c. Urinalysis Specific gravity| 1. 025| pH| 5. 0| Sugar| (-)| RBC| 13-15| Medical Treatment and Evaluation Treatment a. Admit to surgical ward. b. Labs: Ultrasound -CBC -Urinalysis c. I ; O q 4H d. Intravenous Rehydration e. Indwelling Catheter – To facilitate accurate measurement of urinary output for critically ill patients, Drug Study Ciprofloxacin Action: Interferes the conversion of intermediate DNA fragments into high-molecular-weight DNA in bacteria; DNA gyrase inhibitor. Indication: Adult urinary tract infections (including complicated); c hronic bacterial prostitis; acute sinusitis; lower respiratory skin, bone, joint infections; infectious diarrhea, exposure to inhalation anthrax; conjunctivitis, corneal ulcers (ophthalmic). Dose: PO 500mg q12h Adverse Effects: CNS: Headache, dizziness, fatigue, insomnia, depression, restlessness, seizures, confusion. GI: Nausea, constipation, increased ALT, AST, flatulence, insomnia, heartburn, vomiting, diarrhea, oral candidasis, dysphagia, pseudomembranous colitis, dry mouth INTEG: Rash, pruritis, uriticaria, photosensitivity, flushing, fever, chills, MISC: Anaphylaxis,Stevens-Johnson Syndrome MS: Tremor, arthalgia, tendon rupture Nursing Considerations: * Assess patient for previous sensitivity reaction Identify urine output; if decreasing, notify prescriber (may indicate nephrotoxicity); also check for increased BUN, creatinine. Nursing Care Management Ongoing Assessment * Monitor Intake and Output. * Assess Vital signs| Provides information about fluid balance, renal function as well as guidelines for fluid replacement. BP, Pulse, RR, and Temperature indicate response to fluid status. | Diet * Low Sodium diet| A diet high in sodium may raise blood pressure and caus e fluid retention, resulting in swelling of the legs and feet. | Sex Being sexually active may help keep the urethra open. But the patient should not get sexually aroused without ejaculating because the urethra may get blocked. Some treatments may also cause sexual problems. These problems usually do not last forever and most can be helped. Complications * Urinary Tract Infection * Bladder Damage * Chronic Kidney Disease| Urine is normally sterile, and the normal flow of urine usually prevents bacteria from growing in the urinary tract. When urine stays in the bladder, however, bacteria have a chance to grow and infect the urinary tract. If the bladder becomes stretched too far or for long periods, the muscle may be permanently damaged and lose its ability to contract. If urine backs up into the kidneys, permanent kidney damage can lead to reduced kidney function and chronic kidney disease. If you lose too much of your kidney function, you will need dialysis or a kidney transplant to stay alive. | References: Mosby, Elsevier. Mosby’s Guide for Nurses, 6th edition. Missouri, St. Louis: 2005 http://www. pennmedicine. org/encyclopedia/em_DisplayAnimation. spx? gcid=000136;ptid=17 http://www. nsbri. org/humanphysspace/focus4/ep-urine. html http://kidney. niddk. nih. gov/kudiseases/pubs/UrinaryRetention/ http://www. uptodate. com/contents/acute-urinary-retention http://www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/pmc/articles/PMC1477632/ http://www. scribd. com/doc/5989689/Case-Study-BPH http://wps. prenhall. com/wps/media/objects/3918/4012970/NursingTools/ch48_NCP_UrinElim_1316-1317. pdf http://www. drugs. com/cg/urinary-retention-in -men-aftercare-instructions. html