Tuesday, November 26, 2019
The Italian policies of Frederick Barbarossa Essay Example The Italian policies of Frederick Barbarossa Paper The Italian policies of Frederick Barbarossa Paper Essay Topic: History The Italian policies of Frederick Barbarossa, German king and Holy Roman Emperor had a huge impact on medieval Germany during the 12th century. The question of ecclesiastical versus secular power broke out during the emperors reign at a time when Germany was considered to be the strongest monarchy, having authority in Italy and the rest of the Roman Empire. The time was right at Frederick Barbarossas accession in 1152 to restore imperial authority in Italy which had been in demise since the Investiture contest. However this goal threw the Holy Roman emperor into a conflict with the papacy, an obstacle that would prove too hard to overcome in order to achieve all that which the emperor thought was denied to him. However the Papacy also paid a price for holding Frederick in opposition. The Italian policies were far too extent and were finished incomplete. The emperors Italian policies at which he aimed to retrieve from the papacy what he thought he was entitled to, were controversial but innovative. Frederick aimed, with the help of Chancellor Rainald of Dassel to reconstruct the Holy Roman Empire to return it to the glory days of Rome and exercise the authority that the Ottonian emperors had done. 1This battle for land was in essence a way to increase his revenues so he could keep what power he had in Germany over his most influential vassals, something his imperial court pursued vigorously. The authority over the Papal States in such a feudal system meant in theory he was ruler of Rome, but ever since the Commune directed against the papacy had been established in 1143 in Rome the debate had been vociferous and complicated. This would not only create a united and strong empire, it would also question the role of regalia in the papacy. This great design2 was declared openly to the church in 1158 with the Roncaglia decrees. The papacy was angry at this break from the Peace of Constance of 1153, (at which they had been allies) and his determination to exercise authority, especially in central and Northern Italy, proclaimed in the Roncaglia decrees. 3 The Roncaglia decrees proclaimed he would resume all regalia, entire power of Bannus; full exercise of jurisdiction over all matters affecting property, life and liberty. This antagonism, the papacy felt went against the authority of God since the church should have authority over everything, and it resulted in a break of the papal alliance and a schism amongst the church. The papacy highly opposed the independence of many Lombard cities and would not allow any increase in imperial power in Italy. 4 The emperor began his Italian policy swiftly, completing four campaigns into Italy in 1164 and supporting many imperial popes during the 1160s. Even earlier he had established imperial rule in Milan, during the time of Hadrian IV, with little opposition from the papacy5 but Milan found allies in the communes of Brescia and Piacenza. Milan was taken in 1162 and later destroyed which narrowed the anti-imperial coalitions prospect for success, while he forced Alexander III into exile and enthroned Paschal III, a German in St. Peters in 1167. 6 The opposition of the Papacy to the Italian policy began with the succession of Alexander III, the emperors most formidable opponent. The papacy had already found allies in the Lombard city of Milan after the Roncaglia Decrees. Imperial rule over Milan was quickly answered two years after Frederick had taken Milan 8when Manual I, the Byzantine emperor organised an opposition in Venice, the League of Verona with its allies Verona, Padua and Vicenza, including the Norman King. This proved to perhaps achieve the greatest success in opposing the Italian policies of Frederick Barbarossa in Nor thern and Central Italy. The papacy went further in opposition under the politics of Alexander III by excommunicating the emperor after he established Paschal III as pope. The papacy then continued in its opposition in 1167 when the Imperial army was defeated outside Rome, by extending the League of Verona by allying itself into the Lombard League in 1167, while at the same time the pope contributed large sums of money. This proved to wreck many of Fredericks ambitions and gain support for the papacy. Alexander III gained the support of France and the Anglo-Norman Kingdom, while in Denmark and Poland the remaining allies of the imperial pope were exiled. 10 A year later Alexander was able to establish the city of Alessandria with the help of the League. The city of Alessandria was to the emperor a symbol of papal achievement, and although efforts for settlement with the pope continued, the presence of the Lombard League was something the emperor could not allow during peace. The Italian policy again prevaile d with the fifth campaign in 1174 against Alessandria. The emperor again faced defeat and was able to make peace in Montebello with the League, but the Italian policy once again got in the way when Frederick could not accept the inclusion of Alexander III in the peace. Fredericks stubbornness in following his Italian policies (even in opposition to the papacy) however was weakened and a small success was granted to Alexander. The battle of Legnano in 1176 resulted in a near complete destruction of the imperial supremacy in Italy and convinced the emperor to reconcile with the pope. 1 Negotiations at Anagni achieved a far reaching settlement 12 between emperor and pope. The emperor was forced to renounce the Matildine lands and ally with Alexander. He granted some independence to the cities he controlled in Italy and accepted the role of overlord. At this stage the Italian policies of Frederick had failed and the papacy was triumphant. The new relations with the pope had not destroyed the Italian policy, but had instead ended this period of conflict in the Peace of Venice in 1177. Compromise was the aim of both Pope and emperor at the Peace of Venice. Frederick gave up his idea of domination of Italy in return he remained in control of the German church, evidence that the papacy was not as successful in exercising the idea of a papal monarchy and that much strain had been put on its authority over this period. 13 Peace with the Lombard league and Norman King however was not entirely a defeat of the Italian policy, it had taken away much of the authority of Fredericks in Northern Italy but it had left him the authority of the German church, although this was not in Italy it meant the papacy was back where it started. Fredericks policy became focused on the Matildine lands and central Italy. The Peace was broken when Frederick continued his Italian policy in the 1180s; it was the price of silence over many issues (at the treaty of Venice) which were to give rise to the troubles. 14 Frederick revenged the battle of Legnano in 1180 which was later followed by the peace of Constance in 1183. 15 The Peace of Constance meant Frederick was forced to allow the members of the League to have extensive constitutional independence within the city walls and the city territory. But Fredericks rights which could make large financial profits within the city remained. However with the death of Alexander in 1181 there followed a line of passive popes who complied with the emperor during his last Italian campaign (118-6) thus strengthening his influence in Lombardy. By 1189 compromise was again on the table and the papacy was granted a number of places in the Patrimony of St. Peter, reestablishing the area around Rome as a Papal domain. The papacy was left surrounded at the death of Frederick Barbarossa in 1190 when his son Henry VI became engaged to the heiress of the Norman Kingdom of Southern Italy. Frederick still held administrative power in some parts of central Italy but his Italian policy had failed. The Italian policy had failed because it did not answer the question of ecclesiastical versus imperial authority. Frederick Barbarosssas plans of supreme domination over the entire Holy Roman empire were not achieved, but though he yielded much of what he wished to gain it is not to say either that the papacy was entirely successful. ) It had radically altered the place of the papacy in the church16 and left the Holy Roman emperors successors with many claims unanswered. The hard line of Alexander III had not been continued and the emperor was left for sometime unopposed. The Lombard communes can be recognised as the real reason the papacy emerged successful 17 but still the papacy had the future to deal with, a future that found them surrounded by the Holy Roman Emperors authority. Both the emperor and the Papacy paid the price of conflict, but the Papacy was successful enough to immobilise the Italian Policy of Frederick Barbarossa.
Friday, November 22, 2019
Battle of Princeton in the American Revolution Conflict Date: The Battle of Princeton was fought January 3, 1777, during the American Revolution (1775-1783). Armies Commanders: Americans General George WashingtonBrigadier General Hugh Mercer4,500 men British Major General Lord Charles CornwallisLieutenant Colonel Charles Mawhood1,200 men Background: Following his stunning Christmas 1776 victory over the Hessians at Trenton, General George Washington withdrew back across the Delaware River into Pennsylvania. On December 26, Lieutenant Colonel John Cadwaladers Pennsylvania militia re-crossed the river at Trenton and reported that the enemy was gone. Reinforced, Washington moved back into New Jersey with the bulk of his army and assumed a strong defensive position. Anticipating a swift British reaction to the Hessians defeat, Washington placed his army in a defensive line behind Assunpink Creek to the south of Trenton. Sitting atop a low string of hills, the American left was anchored on the Delaware while the right ran east. To slow any British counterattack, Washington directed Brigadier General Matthias Alexis Roche de Fermoy to take his brigade, which included a large number of riflemen, north to Five Mile Run and block the road to Princeton. At Assunpink Creek, Washington faced a crisis as the enlistments of many of his men were set to expire on December 31. By making a personal appeal and offering a ten dollar bounty, he was able to convince many to extend their service by one month. Assunpink Creek In New York, Washingtons concerns about a strong British reaction proved well-founded. Angered over the defeat at Trenton, General William Howe cancelled Major General Lord Charles Cornwallis leave and directed him to advance against the Americans with around 8,000 men. Moving southwest, Cornwallis left 1,200 men under Lieutenant Colonel Charles Mawhood at Princeton and another 1,200 men under Brigadier General Alexander Leslie at Maidenhead (Lawrenceville), before encountering the American skirmishers at Five Mile Run. As de Fermoy had become drunk and wandered away from his command, leadership of the Americans fell to Colonel Edward Hand. Forced back from Five Mile Run, Hands men made several stands and delayed the British advance through the afternoon of January 2, 1777. After conducting a fighting retreat through the streets of Trenton, they rejoined Washingtons army on the heights behind Assunpink Creek. Surveying Washingtons position, Cornwallis launched three unsuccessful attacks in an attempt to take the bridge over the creek before halting due to growing darkness. Though warned by his staff that Washington may escape in the night, Cornwallis rebuffed their concerns as he believed the Americans had no line of retreat. On the heights, Washington convened a council of war to discuss the situation and asked his officers if they should stay and fight, withdraw across the river, or make a strike against Mawhood at Princeton. Electing for the bold option of attacking Princeton, Washington ordered the armys baggage sent to Burlington and his officers to commence preparation for moving out. Washington Escapes: To pin Cornwallis in place, Washington directed that 400-500 men and two cannon remain on the Assunpink Creek line to tend campfires and make digging sounds. These men were to retire before dawn and rejoin the army. By 2:00 AM the bulk of the army was quietly in motion and moving away from Assunpink Creek. Proceeding east to Sandtown, Washington then turned northwest and advanced on Princeton via the Quaker Bridge Road. As dawn broke, the American troops were crossing Stony Brook approximately two miles from Princeton. Wishing to trap Mawhoods command in the town, Washington detached Brigadier General Hugh Mercers brigade with orders to slip west and then secure and advance up the Post Road. Unknown to Washington, Mawhood was departing Princeton for Trenton with 800 men. The Armies Collide: Marching down the Post Road, Mawhood saw Mercers men emerge from the woods and moved to attack. Mercer quickly formed his men for battle in a nearby orchard to meet the British assault. Charging the tired American troops, Mawhood was able to drive them back. In the process, Mercer became separated from his men and was quickly surrounded by the British who mistook his for Washington. Refusing an order to surrender, Mercer drew his sword and charged. In the resulting melee, he was severely beaten, run through by bayonets, and left for dead. As the battle continued, Cadwaladers men entered the fray and met a fate similar to Mercers brigade. Finally, Washington arrived on the scene, and with the support of Major General John Sullivans division stabilized the American line. Rallying his troops, Washington turned to the offensive and began pressing Mawhoods men. As more American troops arrived on the field, they began to threaten the British flanks. Seeing his position deteriorating, Mawhood ordered a bayonet charge with the goal of breaking through the American lines and allowing his men to escape towards Trenton. Surging forward, they succeeded in penetrating Washingtons position and fled down the Post Road, with American troops in pursuit. In Princeton, the majority of the remaining British troops fled towards New Brunswick, however 194 took refuge in Nassau Hall believing that the buildings thick walls would provide protection. Nearing the structure, Washington assigned Captain Alexander Hamilton to lead the assault. Opening fire with artillery, American troops charged and forced those inside to surrender ending the battle. Aftermath: Flush with victory, Washington wished to continue attacking up the chain of British outposts in New Jersey. After assessing his tired armys condition, and knowing that Cornwallis was in his rear, Washington elected instead to move north and enter winter quarters at Morristown. The victory at Princeton, coupled with the triumph at Trenton, helped bolster American spirits after a disastrous year which saw New York fall to the British. In the fighting, Washington lost 23 killed, including Mercer, and 20 wounded. British casualties were heavier and numbered 28 killed, 58 wounded, and 323 captured. Selected Sources British Battles: Battle of PrincetonBattle of Princeton
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Encounter point - Movie Review Example With the help of goal of promotion of peace between Israelis and Palestinians, it became easy for the director to make the movie a complete success. The main purpose of the movie was to make sure that people learn more about the nature of the status of relationship between Israelis and Palestinians (Avni). The cast of the movie includes Ali Abu Awwad, Robi Damelin, Sami Al Jundi, George Saadeh and many others who have done flawless work to make the documentary a hit of the millennium. The movie had managed to deliver its message through the characterization of different events that affected family settings in the society during the violent event between Israelis and Palestinians. The director has clearly projected each and every motive of the issue through different angles. Different people had elaborated their experiences in the documentary that adds up all the patterns of insecure relationship between Palestinians and Israelis. The depictions of family have not been false as the non-profit organization Just Vision had constantly followed these families for about sixteen months in tota (Avni)l. The documentary had been directed with the help of in-depth analysis of the consequences. The director and cast of the documentary had conducted interviews for the purpose of analysis. There were 475 participants who were interviewed during the research for the documentary. For the purpose of effective research of the relationship status between Palestinians and Israelis, the team of the documentary, Encounter Point had to travel throughout Israel. The families which were followed by the non-profit organization greatly contributed and helped the team of the documentary as they were willing to reduce the hatred between the two nations. The goal of the families was observed to finish the war between the two nations that almost got devastating every day (Avni). The plot of the story
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Critical Thinking High School - Essay Example Critical thing in Australian universities is a key factor in upgrading student's study skills (Triyoko, 2007). Critical thinking is an examination of the structures or elements of thought contained in all reasoning, such as purpose, problem, question-at-issue, assumptions, empirical grounding, reasoning towards conclusion, implications and consequences, obstructions from alternative view point, and frame of reference. Critical thinking can also be reflected through a person's curiosity to respond to variable subject matter, issues and purposes. Critical thinking is a concept that is incorporated in a company of intertwined modes of thinking, such as scientific thinking, mathematical thinking, historical thinking, anthropological thinking, economic thinking, moral thinking and philosophical thinking. Critical thinking exists in two components; one, critical thinking is viewed as a set of information and belief generating and processing skills. Two, critical thinking is viewed as a habit whose basis is strongly laid on intellectual commitment to use those skills to in guiding behavior. Critical thinking therefore, is very different from; mere acquisition and retention of information, because critical thinking has a peculiar way of seeking, attaining and treating information. Again, critical thinking is different from sheer possession of a set of skills, because, critical thinking is only complete if it exercises use of those skills continuously (Scriven & Paul, 1987). Critical thinking is not made a concept merely by acquiring skills and putting them into practice; it is fulfilled if the skills put into practice are observed to produce results which must be analyzed and accepted to be important into a certain body of knowledge. Critical thinking is governed by some specific motive guidance. Critical thinking which is guided by selfish motives is characteristic of skillful manipulation of ideas to suit the personal interests. Such motivated critical thinking is void of intellectuality, however practically successful it might be. Although such kind of motivated critical thinking can be directed by fair mind and intellectual integrity, it produces results of high order in terms of intellectuality; however, it is not innocent of biasness from idealism connected to its selfish motive. Critical thinking lacks universality in any individual (Scriven & Paul, 1987). All people are culprits of irrational thought. Its quality therefore depends on the quality and depth of experience in a particular field of thinking. The development of critical thinking is continual. It never stops. No one is a critical thinker all along. There are several strategies that are relevant for developing critical thinking in any individual, students included. In this paper, I will evaluate only three of the most common strategies of developing critical thinking used by tutors and students in the Australian Universities. These are, Affective Strategies, Cognitive Strategies - Macro-Abilities, and finally, Cognitive Strategies-Micro-Skills. Under Affective strategies, there are 9 strategies which generate ability to develop exercise critical thinking. I will discuss only one of these. This one is, Thinking Independently.
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Leadership Imperatives in the Arab-American University Essay Leadership in a school of higher and advanced learning such as the Arab-American University requires collaborative and confrontational challenges with a number of issues, typical but not limited to that of any educational institution. Such issues as cultural diversity, inclusivity, intellectual activities such as research and instruction, social involvements such as community extension services, students affairs, finance, marketing, strategic business models, organizational theories, profitability and shareholder value, political and social congruencies and differences, among others, often create deep chasms to and between the various school sectors that are ironically bound by a common purpose Ã¢â¬â quality education. This is made more demanding when Arab and American views are integrated in a single community. What unique leadership and management model therefore would apply under such a sensitive configuration? What risk management intervention would constantly prevail? What residual risks or synergy, if any, would be evident? Leadership and management in an educational institution are perhaps among the most formal, sensitive and confrontational roles a professional can assume. Business organizations established for profit are far easier managed and led as there is that environment and mandate of compliance required of every employee based on employment contracts and agreements. This compliance system gives the manager the elbow room to adopt an organizational approach under a theory x or y scenario. Admittedly, discipline under an entrepreneurial undertaking is demanded primarily to meet shareholder value targets and for survival secondarily. Universities are considered more complex than most organizational systems as they demand the most professional processes than any other institution. Schools are assumed to be the fount and cradle of learning, hence a strong exemplary modeling of instructors and administrators are always the subject of intensive scrutiny among other sectors. Would this university therefore require a business-like management style or an organization leadership mix that is as fluid as the socio-cultural and political dimensions? . In an age where socio-cultural and political diversities are characterized with the widest spectra and extremes, the establishment of an Arab-American intellectual Mecca can be expected to require the most intense professional and socio-cultural leadership anywhere. This study would be interested in identifying areas of collaboration while addressing confrontational issues and risks along the process. Similarly, the relevance of this study along multicultural settings in complex and diverse forms and in highly professional environment would transcend, even revolutionize all assumptions, hypothesis and even all forms of propositions about multicultural biases. Brief history of the Arab-American University The Arab-American University (AAU) was established in 1973 as non-sectarian, non-profit and non-government institution of higher learning. Its primary purpose is to address the educational needs of Arab-Americans starting from preschool to basic, secondary, higher education, to graduate and post-graduate levels. Among its goals and objectives include providing full scholarships to families of indigent but intellectually capable members of the Arab-American community in a specific area with a relatively high density of Arab-American families. While the university accepts Muslim students, it also caters to students from other religious and cultural denominations and groups.. The university is primarily a combination of a business college strongly oriented towards information technology and engineering courses, both technical and baccalaureate degrees. The university is composed of seven schools: the Schools of Business Management, Hospitality Management, Accountancy, Nursing and Midwifery, Medicine, Arts, Political and the Social Sciences, Polytechnic Institute composed of the Departments of Architecture, Computer Science, Electronic Communications Engineering, Civil and Mechanical Engineering and Fine Arts, its flagship programs includes Accountancy where it ranks among the top 50 business schools in the United States, Electronics Communications Engineering, Nursing, Hospitality Management and Mechanical Engineering. All seven schools are verticalized with their respective graduate schools. As of the year 2008, the university boasted a population of 30,000 highly selected students and scholars from 25 states and 15 countries mostly from the Middle East and Asian countries. Its student population increases by an average of 15 per cent and expected to hit 50,000 by 2012. Presently, it maintains two campuses Ã¢â¬â the Chicago and Urbana Campuses, each with its own charter and separate sets of faculty. All courses are offered in both campuses. For the last three years, AAU has garnered a number of academic awards, including twelve top researches awards in Accountancy, Computer Sciences, Nursing, Electronic Communications Engineering Awards. As of December 31, 2008, the school started to become consistent in its passing rate for the Accountancy, Nursing and Engineering courses all averaging about 80 per cent against the national norm of 40 per cent. For nursing, AAU has started to register a 100 per cent passing rate in the Nursing Board Examinations. All colleges and schools in the university are headed by a Dean of the College and are assisted by a Vice Dean with a pool of Academic Chairs for each of the courses or majors within the college. A Faculty secretary is the administrative officer of each college or school and must be a holder of a doctorÃ¢â¬â¢s degree in any of the courses in the college where he or she is assigned. The faculty secretary is the point person of every college but maintains a built-in six units of academic load in addition to his full-time administrative work. The university boasts of complete state of the art facilities for all of its laboratory classes including its basic education department. Its library is one of the most complete, up-to-date libraries in the world with the most comprehensive collection of traditional and electronic materials. During the last five years, the university has been the recipient of awards for excellence in community involvement and extension services. Its research center laboratory enjoys an endowment fund from where it trains and maintains its pool of researchers from the ranks of the faculty. Leadership Efficiency and Effectiveness and the primary key concepts adopted in the university Just like any school of advanced learning, the university is a complex organization that adheres to the mission, vision, goals and objectives it has demanded from itself and its academic and non-academic employees the highest standards of professionalism, responsiveness, community involvement, strong, visible and dynamic research-orientations and the disciplinary but compassionate relationship maintained with the students of all levels. To be effective and efficient, the university periodically asserted its need to formalize and communicate its strategic, tactical and operational plan in the same other successful organizations do. (Robbins, 2003). Looking ahead and beyond the current situations in the industry, (in this case the education sector) brings uncertainties and risks into the open and allows the organization a clear means of managing, confronting and even avoiding those uncertainties and risks. (Shaw,2003). The university makes sure that it conducts its strategic planning session annually before the onset of the succeeding year in time for translating the strategic level into the tactical component as well as operationalizing the tactical level. (Anthony Govindarajan, 2001). Similarly, AAU never fails to conduct an evaluation and assessment of its preset plans as means of determining where it is and what constraining and enabling factors it is experiencing. (Atkinson et al, 2003). This evaluation additionally renders the university an effective means of addressing change (Koller as cited by Robbins, 2003). These planning and change management processes articulates AAUs assertion of leadership under inherent socio-cultural complexities through clear visioning and communication initiatives to all its stakeholders that for many years, have been encouraged to actively participate in the planning sessions. This has greatly contributed to the overwhelming atmosphere of professionalism in the university. The senior administrators of AAU may not have formal training on complexity management, but their organizational leadership styles enable the attainment of an enviable cohesiveness as a team with a common purpose of being; that of addressing ignorance and mediocrity where they are needed. AAUÃ¢â¬â¢s uniqueness stems from its capability to harness its management with the leadership character to instill regulatory and policy compliance without having to assert authority and power in between (House cited by Robbins, 2003). It is surprising that even under intense pressure to compete and manage the scarce resources provided endowment; the AAU is able to integrate the sensitive and complex balance scorecard approach in its strategic decision making. (Kaplan Norton, 2004). The university attributes this success factor on its priority for choosing its leaders under the trait theory that focuses on the personal qualities along charisma, exemplary modeling, attitude, enthusiasm and even personal traits common to both cultures as courage and determination. (Robbins,2003). Despite rigorous studies on identifying leadership traits for its management, supervisory and staff positions, the university correlates traits such as drive and ambition, integrity which includes honesty and sincerity, competence along knowledge and skills and even sense of sacrifice. (Robbins,2003). The university however, continues to experience a dearth of this type of managers with the leadership dimension due to the expansion and establishment of similar institutions outside of the United States. Thus, aware of this constraint, AAU emphasizes its executive and management development training programs to prepare the transition of its key people towards the great demand for exemplary modeling (DelaTorre, 2006); that is, managers and leaders who took initiatives to address the personal needs of the employees as means of making them more productive in the process. (Robbins, 2003). The university seldom experiences the risks of the groupthink factor (Shafritz Ott on Janis,1992) as it respects the need for all decision makers to be extremely knowledgeable and skilled in the decision making processes. Being a part of its strategic objectives, the annual development programs encourage AAU employees to be continuously motivated, through the behavioral theory approach, effectively deciding as a team in addressing organizational objectives. This motivational drive expands the employees horizons and capabilities towards job satisfaction and sustainable learning and growth of its human capital (Kaplan Norton, 2003). As a result, AAU has achieved in just 25 years what other universities tried to accomplish in a century and under the most challenging multicultural scenarios. On one hand, the leadership and management mix being adopted in the university guarantees and assure empowerment of units and people towards autonomy and self-regulation. This is granted after intensive training on decision making and university processes that includes appreciation and utilization of marketing researches and theories in support of policy formulation and implementation. The immense authorities and power given especially to the respective heads of offices, primarily the Deans of Colleges and Schools, are always tempered with management control systems to guide all decisions towards achievement of goals every inch of the way. The resultant good governance, control and transparency outcomes of this empowerment initiatives unburdens the senior management with operational concerns, thus allowing this level a clear focus on the strategic direction of the university and strengthening its social and political influence through good governance and risk management processes (Shaw,2003) On the other hand, the administrative efficiency has been excellently adopted through specialization and responsibility accounting that enables units to address issues at every level strengthening the span of control while focusing tasks towards a specific class of clients, concerns and even the university campus designated purposely for the educational services. (Shafrits Ott on Simon, 1992). The leadership styles and practices exercised by the AAU stakeholder group are creating new levels of efficiency and effectiveness in the hierarchy and creating precedents as well as new theories to emerge in the realm of university value-based (Koller, 1994) management and organizational leadership. These new learning and growth perspectives have revolutionized the balanced scorecard (Horngren et al, 2000) and stakeholder principles (DelaTorre, 2006) with an exemplary mix of leadership innovations. Despite the control risks that mix might be spawned by the staff turnovers experienced during the last few years, the university has maintained a loyalty index of more than ten years among its people. This is a sustainability plus factor in human resource management of the school. Other key principles and concepts adopted In the area of instruction, research and extension services for example, excellence in the classroom is primarily driven by a strongly motivated select members of the faculty pool whose training and development focus is based on aligning the needs of the teachers with the needs of the university. This congruency theory in objectives (DelaTorre, 2006) allows for mutual and beneficial relationship between faculty providers and students. The intervention theory (Shafrits Ott on Argyris, 1992) in organizations demands a strong psychotherapy approach (Rogers Roethlisberger, 2000) to communications. The theory presupposes the presence of a special relationship between people to enable openness and transparency among constituents. Teachers display this practice in terms of open and complementary student advising and counseling sessions not only as part of the intervention process but a critical part of the formation process in education. Students need and demand attention in the form of interventions especially in difficult and complex scenarios they find themselves in the process of earning a degree. Thus this psychotherapy theory helps in providing a strong motivational environment in the classroom opens avenues for students to be creative and enthusiastic about their career plans. Secondarily, this special attention given to student clientele becomes a strong promotional and marketing tool for the university in attracting students even from those school already established. The need for any intensive advertising and marketing efforts to project the identity of the schools are addressed by the students themselves who become informal marketing and testimonial proofs of quality education. This has expanded the market of the university even to those non-Arab-Americans who appreciate the philosophy that the school articulates and manifests through its graduates. Managing and leading a university in the current socio-economic environment becomes problematic even under the various principles of organization (Shafritz and Ott on Cohen and March, 1992). These anarchic ambiguities of purpose, power, experience and success can render even the most competent university president to fail in some circumstances in due time. Thus the management and organizational leadership mix is both critical and mandatory. This allows the president to grab the appropriate management and leadership tool at a given situation and scenario and exert and even allow certain precedent-setting decisions to effect changes with the least minimum resistance or optimum cooperation. Thus, inability along this line runs the risk of getting confused with his leadership character or manager authority or some hybrid in between. For AAU, the consultation process with the constituents and stakeholders becomes the medium by which decision critical to every office headÃ¢â¬â¢s functions are articulated. This explores the best idea possible while addressing and dissipating potential resistance to any innovations and measures not easily understood or appreciated.
Thursday, November 14, 2019
Analysis of Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad Heart of Darkness is a story about MarlowÃ¢â¬â¢s journey to discover his inner self. Along the way, Marlow faces his fears of failure, insanity, death, and cultural contamination on his trek to the inner station. Marlow, who goes on his journey to meet Kurtz, already has a fascination with Kurtz after listening to many people along the way. Conrad tries to show us that Marlow is what Kurtz had been, and Kurtz is what Marlow could become. Marlow says about himself, "I was getting savage," meaning that he was becoming more like Kurtz. Along the trip into the wilderness, they discover their true selves through contact with the native people. On one occasion, the steamer is attacked by a party of natives, killing the helmsmen and frightening the crew. This event triggers a change in Marlow, who takes off his shoes, which were covered in his friendÃ¢â¬â¢s blood. This taking off of clothes is a return to nature, bringing about a more primitive Marlow. Even as Marlow ventures further up the Congo, he feels like he is traveling ba...
Monday, November 11, 2019
Within todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society and the way the family is portrayed within the media, the family life has changed considerably. The family setup and how parents now discipline their children and their skills to do so, have come under attack. With the increase of children committing crimes and anti social behaviour orders being handed out like sweets its seems that almost everyone is looking for someone to blame for the up rise in bad behaviour with the children of our country. There has been blame pointed at the lack of discipline given out by the courts, the television and media, how familyÃ¢â¬â¢s are structured in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s societyÃ¢â¬â¢ compared to years ago and the majority of blame lies with the parents. This essay will look at Ã¢â¬Å"Do parents matterÃ¢â¬ as this is a huge issue and has vast implications I am going to look at the issue of Divorce. I will be looking at the theories of attachment and separation and how children who are involved with divorce cope and if the issue of gender, culture or ethnicity differs ahead to the outcome of Ã¢â¬Å"Do Parents MatterÃ¢â¬ The governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s reports that roughly 50% of all marriages in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society fail, reasons for the failure include poor communication or lack of communication, financial issues and even the circumstances of the marriage all contribute to the ending of what once seemed the perfect relationship. Within these failed marriages are children, confused and unsure of what the future holds for them. Unsure of how to deal with the split, having to choose which parent to leave behind and which parent to stay at residence with, decisions like these can cause trauma within certain children, thus the question is raised Ã¢â¬Å"Do parents matter? Ã¢â¬ According to John Bowlby, Attachment is a special emotional relationship that involves an exchange of comfort, care, and pleasure. John Bowlby devoted extensive research to the concept of attachment, describing it as a Ã¢â¬Å"lasting psychological connectedness between human beingsÃ¢â¬ Bowlby shared the psychoanalytic view that early experiences in childhood have an important influence on development and behaviour later in life. Our early attachment styles are established in childhood through the infant/caregiver relationship. In addition to this, Bowlby believed that attachment had an evolutionary component, it aids in survival. The propensity to make strong emotional bonds to particular individuals is a basic component of human natureÃ¢â¬ (Bowlby, 1988) Bowlby believed that there are four distinguishing characteristics of attachment: Proximity Maintenance Ã¢â¬â The desire to be near the people we are attached to. Safe Haven Ã¢â¬â Returning to the attachment figure for comfort and safety in the face of a fear or threat. Secure Base Ã¢â¬â The attachment figure acts as a base of security from which the child can explore the surrounding environment. Separation Distress Ã¢â¬â Anxiety that occurs in the absence of the attachment figure. With James Robertson he identified three stages of separation response amongst children, Protest to the mother figure for re-attachment (related to separation anxiety) Despair and pain at the loss of the mother figure despite repeated protests for re-establishment for relationship. (related to grief and mourning), and Detachment or denial of affection to the mother-figure. (related to defence). These phases are universally seen in children who go through separation, either by loss of parent/s due to death, divorce or through boarding school. Bowlby identified that infants need one special relationship for internal development. No variables have more far-reaching effects on personality development than a child's experiences within the family. Starting during his first months in his relation to both parents, he builds up working models of how attachment figures are likely to behave towards him in any of a variety of situations, and on all those models are based all his expectations, and therefore all his plans, for the rest of his life. Ã¢â¬ (J. Bowlby, Attachment and Loss (1973, p. 369)) ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s parents, who separate in the younger years of the child, are more likely to suffer under BowlbyÃ¢â¬â¢s theory, due to the absent of the early attachment bond. Bowlby in 1951 produced a report which argued that infants form a special relationship with their mother which is different from any relationship which they form with any other kind of person. Attachment is formed with the mother within the first six months of life and if the attachment or bond is broken either by death or separation the child would suffer considerable consequences. Although the attachment to either parent is still a considerable one, BowlbyÃ¢â¬â¢s work looks at the mother in particular or a significant caregiver. Bowlby theory of separation has great strengths within the family structure, it explains how early attachment is essential for a stable life span of the child. Ã¢â¬Å"The Nature of the ChildÃ¢â¬â¢s Tie to His MotherÃ¢â¬ (1958), Ã¢â¬Å"Separation AnxietyÃ¢â¬ (1959), and Ã¢â¬Å"Grief and Mourning in Infancy and Early ChildhoodÃ¢â¬ (1960) are BowlbyÃ¢â¬â¢s first formal statements of attachment theory, building on concepts from ethology and developmental psychology. Bowlby theories of attachment are followed closely by Byng-Hall and Mary Ainsworth. Byng-Hall suggests that the family contributes to attachment by providing a secure family base. HeÃ¢â¬â¢s definition of secure base is Ã¢â¬Å"a family that provides a reliable and readily available network of attachment relationships, and appropriate caregivers, from which all members of the family are able to feel sufficiently secure to explore their potentialÃ¢â¬ . Byng-Hall suggests that there are two factors associated with a secure family base. First, he suggests that there is a shared awareness that attachment relationships are important and care for others is a priority in the family. Second, he contends that family members should support one another in providing care for each other. The weakness factors that undermine a secure base in families include fear of losing an attachment figure or actual loss of an attachment figure. A child clings to one caregiver and rejects relationships with other caregivers. Byng-Hall refers to this as Ã¢â¬Å"capturingÃ¢â¬ an attachment figure. Turning to an inappropriate attachment figure (i. e. , if one parent is not supporting the other parent, a child may be used as an attachment figure). Conflict within relationships particularly abusive relationships. Negative self-fulfilling prophecies, there is an expectation that losses from other generations will be repeated. Mary Ainsworth Ã¢â¬Å"Strange Situation ProcedureÃ¢â¬ study confirms the theory of Bowlby and investigates how a child makes an attachment to its mother or main caregiver. Ainsworth's research revealed key individual differences among children, demonstrated by the child's reaction to the mother's return. Ainsworth categorised these responses into three major types. Anxious/avoidantÃ¢â¬âthe child may not be distressed at the mother's departure and may avoid or turn away from her on her return. Securely attachedÃ¢â¬âthe child is distressed by the mother's departure and easily soothed by her on her return. Anxious/resistantÃ¢â¬âthe child may stay extremely close to the mother during the first few minutes and become highly distressed at her departure. When she returns, the child will simultaneously seek both comfort and distance from the mother. The child's behaviour will be characterised by crying and reaching to be held and then attempting to leave once picked up. Using the Strange Situation procedure, many researchers have studied the development of child attachment to the mother and significant caregiver. However, the weaknesses show there continues to be much debate about the origins of the child's reaction in the Strange Situation, and about what factors influence the development of an infant's attachment relationships. The attachment and separation theory is apparent when Divorce occurs within the family home. Children involved show emotional upset to a parent that leaves the residential home, thus causing a disturbance to the dynamics of the family structure. Behaviour of children is displayed in a number of formats from acceptance to the extreme of being issued an anti social behaviour order. The development of a child is determined by the nature of the environment and the nurture that has been given. The different stages of attachment are related to the age of the child, thus gender, culture, ethnicity and socio-economic status are not considered, however all of these areas do influence the situation considerably. Children are known to favour one parent more so than another, Divorce within a white European family compared to a black West Indian family can have extreme differences. Due to culture beliefsÃ¢â¬â¢ and family pressures. West Indian and Asian family divorce rates are far lower than the European statistics. Ethnicity of a family also influences the up bringing of a child and how the parents are treated and perceived. Bowlby theory states that the mother or main caregiver is needed for a stable upbringing. Younger children in particular have a hard time dealing with the changes that are occurring at this time. A childÃ¢â¬â¢s reaction to this depends upon their age and their ability to comprehend what is happening. Consistency is very import to younger children and the trauma of their parents separating is extremely difficult for them to handle. The loss of routine, the change in daily habits and the loss of friendÃ¢â¬â¢s school and other familiar patterns is especially difficult. When a father is excluded from the family home, reports show that the majority of crime and anti social behaviour are committed from one parent families, studies of young criminals show that over 70% of juveniles imprisoned come from fatherless homes, once the influence of a strong male character disappears the child reacts in a negative manner, acting up, causing a disturbance are some of the symptoms a child goes through. It appears that father absence may have different effects on boys and girls. Boys tend to experience more academic and social disruption when fathers are not present in the household. Father absence challenges girlÃ¢â¬â¢s emotional stability but does not seem to undermine their school performance. A boy who lives alone with his mother does not have a male role model in the home to teach him how to shave or kick a football or ask a girl out for a date, all of these things are extremely important to our social integration. Children who grow up without fathers in the home seem to have more likelihood to experience, drug and alcohol abuse, poverty, lack of opportunity to succeed, sex at an early age, pregnancy, behaviour problems, crime involvement, dropouts from school. These experiences are more likely to occur during adolescence because changes are happening so fast in this age group. Much supervision is needed at this time and is hard to enforce without a dad in the house, especially with teenage boys. As teens enter these years they tend to be closer to the same sex parent and look in that direction for guidance. Girls are stressed and likely to be depressed having no father in the home. Ã¢â¬Å"Stepmothers are found to have more problematic relationship with stepchildren; while children, particularly girls, also experience higher stress when they are living with their stepmothers. (Jacobson, 1987 in Visher ; Visher, 1993). Visher ; Visher (1979) suggested that teenage daughters identify strongly with their mothers and resent any woman who replaces their mother for the father's affection. Teenage daughters also exhibit much competitiveness with their stepmothers for their father's affection. These findings suggested that there are strong situational dynamics at work that create special relationship problems for stepmother families. Difficulty between the children's mother and stepmother has also been mentioned as a possible contribution to the greater stress in stepmother families. (Visher & Visher 1988)Ã¢â¬ Boys are more likely to act out and become discipline problems which upsets the mother. They try to take over the role of the dominant male in the household. Girls show their longing for a father figure by getting Ã¢â¬Å"boy-crazyÃ¢â¬ and can tend to end up with men who treat them badly. Girls need a father to demonstrate how a man acts in a family relationship. It seems that girls who have to guess pick the wrong boys and men. Ã¢â¬ Biblarz and Raftery (1999) show that mother-absence is much more detrimental than father-absence to children's educational and occupational attainment. They find that once parents' socioeconomic status is taken into account, children raised by single mothers are much better off than children raised by single fathers or fathers and stepmothers, and are just as likely to succeed as children raised by both birth parents. Biblarz and Raftery conclude that the pattern of effects across family types and over time is consistent with an evolutionary perspective which emphasizes the importance of the birth mother in the provision of children's resources (Trivers 1972). According to this view, children raised by their birth mothers do better than children raised apart from their birth mothers. Furthermore, being raised by a single birth mother is better than being raised by a birth mother and step-father since step-fathers compete with children for mother's time and lower maternal investment. Dealing with children who suffer from the separation of a loved parent is difficult. Social Services and Social Workers have to treat and understand the childÃ¢â¬â¢s needs in relation to its personal case. The ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Act 2004 assists with the legal framework and legislation of needs but it is that of a Social Worker and their ability and knowledge that assists with the emotional needs of the children, thus enabling them to deal with the separation to the best of their ability and co-ordinate any addition services that may be required. Behaviour, socialisation skills, and how we treat other people are pronominally learnt through our parents. It is the nurture of a parent that encourages a child to develop into a citizen that society requires and needs. It is fully reported that Divorce causes catastrophic effects on certain children; I believe that this is true due to non communication from the parents involved, what, how and the effects the children experienced are due to how the situation was tackled. Parents have an integral position in childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s lives whether they own biological offspring or offspring obtained via a separation or new relationship. Children from a Divorced separated family background are more likely to experience difficulties later on into adult life, male children having anger related issues, female children having trust and insecurity problems all transpiring from the divorce of the parents. These extremely worrying issues can be overcome with the communication, knowledge and experience of the parents in educating their children and showing a positive influence in their lives, with the theory of Bowlby and Ainsworth, I would like to conclude that in my opinion, yes parents do matter. References http://www.litnotes.co.uk/mass_media.htm http://www.sociology.emory.edu/tdowd/SOC769rsyllabus.htm http://www.psychology.sunysb.edu/attachment/online/inge_origins.pdf
Saturday, November 9, 2019
Foreshadowing is often used by an author to heighten the interest in the story. The author of Ã¢â¬Å"A Rose for EmilyÃ¢â¬ foreshadows the discovery of Homer BarronÃ¢â¬â¢s body in a few different ways. The smell that develops around EmilyÃ¢â¬â¢s house, and Homer never returning to EmilyÃ¢â¬â¢s house are both foreshadowing what happens later in the story. When Emily went into the drug store saying Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬Ë I want the best you have. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t care what kind'Ã¢â¬ ,(William Faulkner) and purchased rat poison, it immediately informed the reader that somebody is the story was going to die. While reading this story, I believed that Emily purchased the rat poison in order to kill herself, not Homer Barron. Right at the end of the story, when the door to the house gets opened, the Negro immediately leaves, which indicates that he has got something to hide. We soon find out that he indeed had something to hide, Homer BarronÃ¢â¬â¢s body. Emily GriersonÃ¢â¬â¢s portrayal of reality is completely different from the reality surrounding her. Emily doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t allow the mayor to put up a mailbox in front of her house, and refuses to accept the fact that there might be mail coming to her house. She believes that since she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have any actual friends, there will be no mail getting delivered to her house. She believes that since nobody is friends with her, she should have no mail. Emily refuses to accept a lot of things. She also refuses to pay taxes because she has Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬Ëno taxes in Jefferson (William Faulkner). After her fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s death Emily had been dismissed of paying taxes and had still not realized that time had gone by and things had changed. Emily also refused to accept her fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s death and follow the rules at the pharmacy when asked to identify the reason she that she needs rat poison. Emily Grierson does not seem to understand that things change as time passes by. Homer may have changed his mind about being with Emily, but Emily did not want to accept this fact. This may have c aused her to keep Homer with her forever, in her own, sick, twisted way.
Thursday, November 7, 2019
Case study 2 Essay Case study 2 Essay Daniel Serna MBA Case Study 2 Enron How did the corporate culture of Enron contributed to its bankruptcy? These leaders was motivated by greed, money and power. Enron was once one of the Top Fortune 500 Company. The culture of this company was to make profits and as the company gain momentum, many people join the bang wagon of deceitful practices and the demise grown amongst the upper management for Enron. However, the accounting method was question by the accountability of people for the organization including upper management. People have to understand that corporate America cannot be trusted to police themselves. Integrity was not a hiring trait imposed by EnronÃ¢â¬â¢s upper management. Even today, we face challenges that we learn from Enron but it was also a returning effect like in the house market fall. Just like Enron, the CEO and CFO become unethical which cause a tough problem for the community that they service and at times it a major effect. Even the hiring practice of working to terminate the bottom 20 percent of the workforce due to the lack of progress within 6 months. Did EnronÃ¢â¬â¢s bankers, auditors, and attorneys contributed to EnronÃ¢â¬â¢s demise? If so how? Every one of these people were involved and play a part to the downfall to Enron. However, the attorney for the company should be sued for malpractice due to the fact that they provide approval and opinion to decision made by the CFO and others. The attorney themselves open themselves up for liability and increased the power of Enron to continue to operate even when they company books were not correct. Since the attorney were invested were profiting from Enron, they too were needing to be policed. Enron was one of their top clients, they continue to bill Enron for their services. This Houston firm made millions in billable and remain quite. Merrill Lynch was also part of the demise. Although the role of the banker were limited but because of sale and profits they too covered for Enron. The one reason was when an analyst that exposed an Enron executive practice. Then Enron retaliated by keeping info from Enron to other stock offers. Furthermore the banker continue to have sha dy practices that caused more financial downfall. What role did the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s chief financial officer play in creating the problem that led to EnronÃ¢â¬â¢s financial
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
Learn Artist Idioms in Context Here is a discussion of what makes an artist. The focus is on personality characteristics and youll find 15 new idioms defined below used in context in the story.Ã Try reading one time to understand the gist without using the idiom definitions. On your second reading, use the definitions to help you understand the text while learning new idioms. Finally, take the quiz after the reading to practice the idioms and expressions youve learned. The Artist What makes an artist an artist? Well, there probably isnt any easy answer to that question. However, there are some personality characteristics that many artists seem to have in common. First of all, artists come from all walks of life. They may have been born rich or poor, but they are all dedicated to realizing what only they can see in their minds eyes. Another common trait of artists is that they do things according to their own lights. In fact, for many of them, creating art is do or die. Of course, that also means that they are often perfectionists. Theyll lose themselves in a new creation and you might not see them for the next few weeks. Often, you might drop by to check up on how they are doing and youll discover that their apartment is anything but spick-and-span. Its no wonder because theyve sunk their teeth into their latest work and completely lost all track of time. Housework is certainly the last thing on their mind! Of course, this lifestyle often means that they can barely make ends meet. Jobs are few and far between and money comes in dribs and dabs. This is true even for up-and-coming superstars whose reputation is growing by leaps and bounds. Finally, artists see art as an end in itself. Its not about the money to them. Theyre different from normal people who mind their ps and qs. Artists challenge us with their vision. Theyd never slap something together that just looks pretty. Idiom and Expression Definitions do something according to your own lights do something your own way, follow your own inspiration rather than that of othersall walks of life from many different backgrounds, classes, etc.Ã an end in itself something done only for the pleasure of doing itbreak new ground create something new, innovatedo or die (used as an adjective) absolutely necessarydribs and dabs little by little, not happening continuouslyÃ in your minds eye in your imaginationby leaps and bounds grow or improve very quicklylose yourself in something become so involved that you dont notice anything elsemake ends meet earn enough money to live onmind your ps and qs be normal, not interfere with other peoplesink your teeth into something concentrate on doing a project seriously for a long timeslap something together create something without much care to detailspick-and-span extremely cleanup-and-coming soon to be famous, young talent becoming successfulÃ Idiom and Expression Quiz Im afraid I cant follow your suggestion. I prefer to paint __________.Can you see that picture __________?Our son is very good at the piano. In fact, hes improving __________.Unfortunately, money is very tight at the moment. I dont have a steady job so the money is coming in __________.Id love to _________ my __________ a new project.Its important that your house is _________ if you want to sell it.Peter is an _________ musician. Hell soon be famous.I think this work of art ________. Its completely different from anything before.Please be quiet and __________. I dont want to be bothered.Students attending the academy come from __________. Youll find people from all over the world with different backgrounds.Ã Quiz Answers according to my own lightsin your minds eyeby leaps and boundsdribs and dabssink my teeth intospick-and-spanup-and-comingbreaks new groundmind your ps and qsall walks of life You can learn more idioms and expressions in context with these stories.
Saturday, November 2, 2019
Refrace week 4 cal - Essay Example The programmes are interrelated tasks dealing with important scientific difficulties. The project teams work upon development (PDT) in both face-to-face ways (FTF) and can also work in a virtual-to-virtual way(VTV) The successful outcomes of such project team work results in the introduction of new services and products in the various sectors already mentioned creating new intellectual properties, with the publication of papers and advancements in various fields. Scientific rigour is paramount , as are ethical features, with a definite adherence to moral and humanistic principles. If this doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t happen then there will be cancellation of projects our efforts will be wasted . This of course would mean a lack of sustained funding and eventually society suffers when these products or services are not made available as a result. As work as part of a PDT carries on day by day in the laboratories there are a variety of processes which are supportive as well as being transparent. This gives a working framework for the members of the team which is moral and ethical. In order to do this three things must happen Ã¢â¬ ¢ Each individualÃ¢â¬â¢s contribution is correctly credited as their own original and personal contribution to the whole . This enables the team to further together their cutting edge work in developing new products (NPD.) If the teams are able to work to their highest standards in such areas then the possibility of setbacks and problems will be minimised and scientific discoveries and contributions will continue to be made. PDTÃ¢â¬â¢s work closely together in groups which are multi-disciplinary, but on occasions the members find themselves working alone on particular aspects of these projects. We want to ensure that the PDTs in our organisation do not have to face up to ethical issues, either in the laboratory or in interactions with clients, whether in collaborative interactions or when working alone. If we could